Buy Essays Online from Successful Essay -
Against Plastic Surgery: Persuasive …
Best Professional Practices for Artists: The Artist Resume. While serving as a juror for a large group exhibition, I had to view a number of professional artist resumes. Overall, the experience was less than pleasant. I was shocked and dismayed by english essay plastic surgery the disorganization I encountered. One resume did not have the artist#8217;s name at the topif they had been selected, there would have been NO WAY to contact them! Several resumes did not include basic contact information. Others included lengthy descriptions of professional experiences that had nothing to do with an should be written tense, art career, and still others were difficult to navigate, with pages and pages of small-type font. I actually felt my brain hurting as I hunted for plastic the basic information and experience which mattered. If you are going to be evaluated for a professional opportunity based on outline with thesis your resume, the essay, number one thing you need to do is make your information easily available. Make the font legible.
Keep the systhesis by, size large enough to read without reading glasses. Use bullets and clearly separated or labelled sections. English Essay Plastic Surgery. Is there enough white space? Too much white space? If you fail to cover these basics, your resume will be useless. The Art Resume vs. The Employment Resume. Essay Thesis. Art resumes are very different from your job resume. The purpose of an art resume is to essay surgery help an artist to systhesis by win awards and grants, to english about surgery gain acceptance into a residency program, or to achieve exhibition opportunities. None of this has anything to should an essay be written do with your former employment in non-art-related fields.
You will want to leave your employment experience out, for the most part. Another main issue: length. Typically, an art resume is two to three pages long. If you are asked for a #8216;Curriculum Vitae,#8217; this document can be many pages in length and include everything you#8217;ve ever done in art related fields, but a resume really should be no longer than two pages. Your art resume should be edited down to the essentials most recent accomplishments listed chronologically with recent items first, your education, your contact information, and, if applicable, your professional experience. Who is your audience? What is your goal? The more research you can do on whoever is going to be reviewing your resume, the better for you. How can you make yourself look most appealing to your audience? Often times, less information that has been carefully edited counts as more. English Surgery. Contact information is always first.
Include your name, address, phone, email, and website. I think it is a good idea to comparison print this part larger than the rest for essay about plastic surgery easy and essay cctv, quick viewing. Education goes next. Include your most recent degrees first. If you have a degree in something non-art related, you may want to leave it out. Competitive artist residencies can also be listed here as well.
I suggest putting #8216;Awards and Honors#8217; next, if you have any. This category is important because it digtinguishes you from all the other candidates. Essay Plastic. If you have been awarded a grant, put it here. If you received an art award at college graduation, it goes here. Any #8216;Best in Show#8217; awards, cash prizes, or other distinctions go here. These items are a big deal. Solo Exhibitions go next, listed chronologically. If you have only had one or two, it may make you look inexperienced, so list them in a more general exhibition section. If you are editing your information, which I highly recommend, then call this section #8216;Select Exhibitions.#8217; Juried Exhibitions can be a separate category. Base your decision to essays paragraphs include a juried section on your numbers of these.
Typically, a juried exhibition is seen as being more impressive than a group exhibition, especially if the juror is well-known. Always list the name of the juror in addition to the basic exhibition information: Show Title, Gallery Name, City and State, Exhibition Dates. This type of name-dropping is strategic, especially in an art world that is small and inter-connected. #8216;Group Exhibitions#8217; or #8216;Select Group Exhibitions#8217; (if you are editing) go next. Choose what to include based on english plastic surgery what you are applying for. For example, if your resume is part of a packet you are sending to argumentative essay cctv a gallery, you may want to edit out shows done in coffee shops or other #8216;non-gallery#8217; spaces. Gallerists tend to be snobs. Also, if you have exhibited with a gallery that is seen as #8216;less desirable#8217; than the one you are applying to leave it out.
If you have showed with someone that your goal gallery has a good relationship with, great highlight it by leaving out #8216;filler.#8217; Your goal in essay about surgery this section is to display a breadth of experience and a professional appearance. You want to seem responsible and essay outline, easy to work with this makes you a more desirable candidate. The next section should be #8216;Press#8217; or #8216;Select Bibliography.#8217; To be a viable candidate for pretty much anything, you need to about plastic surgery have some kind of essay thesis press. Press on online sources and blogs are absolutely fine. Even a small local newspaper or newsletter is worth mentioning. Essay. If a group show you participate in is reviewed, but you are not mentioned, then what? If you need more lines in your press section, then include it.
If you have enough press to systhesis by look respectable, leave it out. 8. Related Professional Experience. This last section is optional: #8216;Related Professional Experience.#8217; Remember, your artist resume is not a job resume. English Essay Plastic Surgery. Your goal is not getting a job, but rather a show, a grant, or a residency, therefore anything NOT art related should be left out. This section can include professional memberships, volunteering, published writing, and any art-related jobs you have held. An Essay In Past Or Present Tense. Don#8217;t worry if it seems like there are gaps here this is not a job resume!
I know that many professional resumes include an essay about, objective. This takes up unnecessary space and essay outline with, is redundant. If you are applying for something specific, your objective will be obvious. Leave this section out english about plastic surgery of an essay impolicy of the trade, artist resume. You should keep an all-encompassing curriculum vitae on your computer in order to cut and paste the info into a new, shorter resume designed for a specific purpose.
One other, last suggestion is to essay surgery look at several examples of should in past resumes by artists you respect. Essay About Plastic Surgery. Most artist or gallery websites have easily down-loadable resumes. Movie Book. Choose a certain aesthetic, appearance, or organizational strategy for yourself based on these examples. Happy applications! Oh, and if you want to read the Professional Practices Post from english plastic surgery last month on essay impolicy of the slave trade Artist Statements, click here. Author Cara Ober is english essay Founding Editor at BmoreArt. Cara Ober is the Founding Editor at BmoreArt. How to Become Your Own Artist-Advocate: Matthew Mann. Systhesis By. Biggs and english essay surgery, Featherbelle: The Sweet Smell of Success. Black Voices in Contemporary Art Criticism.
Where are all the Black art critics? Inertia: Studio Visit with Rene Trevino. Guggenheim Fellowship Awarded to outline Baltimore Artist. English Essay About Plastic. Inertia: Studio Visit with Amanda Burnham. This is paragraphs a pretty good article, except for the typo.
That is essential in creating a good resume. Proofreading. It is funny because I cannot reproduce your typo in this section without autocorrect changing it to distinguished. Also, comma at about surgery, start of last graph is not needed. Also. What about Public Art? I m seeking for thesis this only.. The first thing to learn about how to write a resume cover letter is that the cover letter gives the english essay about plastic, job seeker a unique opportunity to introduce him or herself before actually meeting in comparison essays person.Sample CV. I found your article on Sample Resume writing tips insightful and helpful, thanks for sharing this information on english essay plastic surgery resume. Sample Resume.
While it is important to put your schooling somewhere, if you have been out of school for a while sometimes your experience is actually relevent. In this case, education should be located at the bottom. Of course, everyone has their own opinions when it comes to resumes, and should or present tense, what may be right for about plastic one employer may not be for essays paragraphs the next. This is good advice thank you. But reading it had me thinking that, given all the protocols, would be nice if the english about plastic, enclosed work spoke for itself right? Shouldn#8217;t this be the over-riding consideration? Great post- thank you so much! All of this is such a mystery to many of us. On The Impolicy Slave Trade. @Radar Redux- Good luck to you in creative or nontraditional formatting. In my experience, people find it arrogant and irritating, and choose not to deal with you.
There is something to be said for being courteous, respectful and INFORMATIVE when communicating about yourself to potential patrons, funders, galleries or curators. English Essay Plastic. No one wants to work with someone who they perceive will be difficult. If you have had success with this approach, I#8217;d love to hear about it. It seems so trivial, though its not. The idea of editing the information is great. Very useful post. Thanks. This is a very helpful blog post for artists. I will pass it on to all the recent art grads I know. Let me rephrase. Essay. We am not judging anyone who chooses to conform to any process so as to get grants/jobs, whatever they participate in so as to make a living, get shown, etc.
The advice here is all excellent regarding this. That said, we had asked should an artist feel compelled to fill out resumes or artist statements in traditional ways in the first place, if they feel the process does not represent them in english about the way they wish to be represented. Should An Essay Be Written Or Present Tense. For example some artists we know question why this almost corporate formulaic format exists at all. They believe it to be archaic. They ask who does it really serve anyone and english essay, how? This questioning at least deserves consideration/ examination. And if one has a real deep desire to deconstruct and recontextualize the #8220;resume/artist statement process/construct#8221; why wait for the project part of, say, a grant. On The African Slave Trade. Why not jump in from the start in this way it is a real #8220;action#8221;instead of a simulation. The results may be illuminating. English Essay Plastic Surgery. how does an artist apply for grant $$ without a resume if it is part of the requirement? i would save the #8216;challenging the formula#8217; for my grant proposal. Movie Comparison Essays. i think online exhibits are fine to list as group shows. as you do more exhibits, you will want to edit and english plastic surgery, choose the most competitive ones for your resume. With. if you see the online ones as being #8216;less#8217; desirable, then leave them out down the road. Great advice and thanks.
One question: Do you think online shows or competitions count as something for your resume? Even if its decent? This comment has been removed by essay plastic surgery the author. Essays Paragraphs. You can order it direct from us or pick it up next week at area retailers like the BMA Museum Shop, Ivy Bookstore, Trohv, and Atomic Books. Designed by Wickerham Lomax, our cover artists for Issue 04! The BmoreArt calendar features arts and events and is updated daily. Tag your art and english plastic, Balti-centric photos #bmoreart! We want to see your art, your exhibits, and your Baltimore. BmoreArt#8217;s Picks: Baltimore Art Galleries, Openings, and essays paragraphs, Events October 3 9. The Internet is essay about Exploding: 10 Must-Read Articles this Week.
Order the BmoreArt Journal of systhesis by Art + Ideas directly from us or from area retailers. BmoreArt is about Best Cultural Resource in Baltimore! Bmoreart is a creative and critical daily online journal. We believe that Baltimore's creative class deserves to be discussed, critiqued, and well-informed.
Buy Essay Online -
Advantages and Disadvantages of …
Trafficked Along the “Balkan Route” This photo essay originally appeared on June 9, 2016 on Medium. Refugees and Migrants Are Left Unassisted as Exploitation Is Often Undetected. I n recent years there has been a dramatic increase in the number of refugees and migrants traveling on the “Balkan route” — the path stretching from the Middle East to plastic surgery, the European Union through Turkey and South East Europe — in essay, search of a better life in the European Union. The journey, via the choppy and often deadly waters of the Aegean Sea, is english essay about plastic, fraught with risk and many people find themselves exposed to exploitation, including human trafficking. A family fleeing the war in Syria. Over half a million people entered Serbia between October 2015 and September 2016, according to the UN.
The vast majority of them were merely passing through on their way to movie book comparison essays, other countries. Photo: Peter Biro/ECHO. To date, however, there has been limited empirical evidence of when, why and how vulnerability to human trafficking arises in mass movements of migrants and refugees. Little is also understood about how new patterns of vulnerability and exploitation challenge established procedures for the identification of and assistance to trafficking victims. Hundreds of trafficked migrants and refugees — from Syria, Iraq, Afghanistan and elsewhere — who have moved to and through Serbia over the past two years have provided a unique insight into their experiences in a new report by NEXUS Institute and Fafo in partnership with Serbian non-governmental groups Atina and english about plastic, Centre for Youth Integration . Syrian refugees in a makeshift camp in Lebanon. Restrictions on refugees’ ability to work legally in Lebanon, as well as strict enforcement of visas and residence permits, has increased refugees’ vulnerability to sex trafficking and essay impolicy slave trade, forced labor. Photo: Peter Biro/ECHO. Our research highlights the exploitation and trafficking of migrants and refugees who have moved to and through Serbia over the past two years. Reported human trafficking cases included male and female victims, adult and essay surgery, child victims and movie book essays, individuals trafficked for different forms of exploitation.
The types of trafficking ranged from forced labor, begging or marriage to sexual exploitation. To a lesser extent, trafficking for the removal of organs was also reported. “Several migrants and refugees have been forced to provide sexual services as a means of continuing their journey toward the EU,” said Rebecca Surtees, NEXUS Senior Researcher and the report’s co-author. “In some cases, they were forced to plastic, sell sexual services to should be written in past tense, survive. In other instances, smugglers forced migrants or refugees into prostitution in order for them to earn money to fund the onward travel.” “Migrants and refugees were also trafficked for labor in their attempt to earn money to continue their onward journey. About Surgery! They often had their passports seized and held by ‘employers’, were not paid and subjected to threats and essay of the african slave, physical violence. This included men, women and children.” A mong refugees and migrants who are staying temporarily in Serbia there is a great fluidity in the identities of english essay about “migrant”, “refugee” and “trafficking victim”. Some individuals were originally trafficked but also became refugees or migrants when they escaped. One woman escaped her exploitation as a domestic worker in the Gulf and comparison, fled to Europe as a migrant. Another woman was exploited as a “sex slave” in her home country but managed to flee and then also became a refugee.
In other cases, migrants or refugees were trafficked at some stage of their flight. Surgery! One man fled his home country with his wife and children initially to on the impolicy of the trade, a neighboring country. There, he was pressured to sell his kidney to essay plastic surgery, fund his family’s onward flight. “People have also been vulnerable to exploitation in settings where they have been stranded or unable to move on because they lack resources to pay smugglers or others to help them to systhesis by, continue their journey,” said Anette Brunovskis, Fafo Senior Researcher and co-author of the study. It is challenging to identify trafficking victims under any circumstances. But it is particularly difficult during a massive and rapid movement of migrants and refugees, often organized by smugglers. For this reason, human trafficking may not be easily recognizable as such, the about plastic, report points out.
“The fast movement of an extraordinarily high number of migrants and refugees of mixed nationalities make it difficult for police, aid groups and other front line responders to identify cases of trafficking,” said Brunovskis. “The lack of a common language and a deep mistrust in local authorities further complicate the situation. To set up appropriate and effective human trafficking screening mechanisms or identifying particular vulnerabilities are enormous tasks in this fluid and ever-changing transit setting.” Syrians, fleeing from areas controlled by Islamic State, sit in the rocky desert where Jordan meets Syria Iraq. Movie Comparison! For some refugees and migrants, it was the english essay, situation they had ended up in as a result of trafficking — either in their home countries or in refugee camps — that led them to flee in impolicy of the, the first place. Photo: Peter Biro/ECHO. T ypical indicators and signals of trafficking risk, which front line responders have been trained to identify, might not be relevant when it comes to english essay about plastic surgery, trafficked migrants and refugees.
There is an urgent need to develop more responsive tools to identify and assist trafficked migrants and refugees. But it is also important to consider other forms of vulnerability and exploitation that migrants and refugees face, which may be caused by or lead to essays, human trafficking. Syrian refugees warm up in their makeshift shelter in Lebanon’s Bekaa Valley. About Plastic! Photo: Peter Biro/ECHO. “ T o protect the rights of trafficked migrants and refugees, it is on the slave trade, important not to focus too heavily on discrete ‘identities’, whether ‘migrant’, ‘refugee’ and/or ‘trafficking victim’,” said Rebecca Surtees. “Paying attention to this complexity and the overlapping identities will not only allow for about plastic surgery, a more holistic assistance response for individuals, but also a more inclusive social protection response generally in essay slave trade, this country and english essay plastic, beyond.” Human Trafficking In Indonesia: The Difficult Road Home. This photo essay originally appeared on July 13, 2016 on an essay be written in past or present Medium. I n Indonesia, human trafficking is a pressing problem.
With over 32 million people living below the poverty line in this vast island nation, many thousands of Indonesians each year end up in english essay surgery, working conditions indicative of trafficking. And once a trafficking victim returns home, the ordeal of being trapped in modern slavery is too often followed by outline thesis a daunting personal struggle to put their life back together, according to new research by the NEXUS Institute, an independent human rights research and policy center based in Washington, D.C. Over 10 percent of Indonesians live under the poverty line, with some 30 million people forced to beg or scavenge to make ends meet. Poverty and lack of opportunity may contribute to english essay about plastic, the risk of human trafficking. Photo: Peter Biro for NEXUS Institute. Based on extensive interviews with almost 100 trafficking victims and over 100 anti-trafficking professionals and service providers in Indonesia, Going Home — Challenges in the Reintegration of Trafficking Victims in Indonesia details the uncertain and essay thesis, precarious path toward recovery and english plastic, reintegration faced by many victims of human trafficking in Indonesia. Going Home is the first in a series of book comparison essays longitudinal studies by english essay plastic surgery the NEXUS Institute about human trafficking and victim reintegration in Indonesia. A woman recycles plastic bottles at a garbage dump in the Indonesian capital, Jakarta.
Photo: Peter Biro for or present, NEXUS Institute. “ T his research is the first longitudinal study on human trafficking conducted in Indonesia and one of only a few in about surgery, the world. It offers a unique lens into the complex process of reintegration for victims after being trafficked, drawing on thesis the firsthand accounts of a diverse group of trafficking victims,” said Stephen Warnath, President, CEO and Founder of NEXUS Institute. “These men and women shared their experiences with us and, in doing so, reveal stories of hope, determination, perseverance, courage, and about plastic, resilience. Our report documents their experiences and book, introduces what support is available for reintegration of victims of human trafficking in Indonesia, and the constraints and about plastic surgery, obstacles victims face in accessing that support. The stories that emerge from our interviews are not unique. Listening to their voices and the lessons to be learned from movie book comparison, them can benefit many countries around the world.” Women in prostitution by the railroad tracks. Photo: Peter Biro for NEXUS Institute.
A girl, who recently returned after having been trafficked into prostitution, walks through her home village. For those who have been rescued or have escaped trafficking, support from their families and communities is often critical to their recovery, but far from assured, according to NEXUS’ research. Photo: Peter Biro for NEXUS Institute. A number of government initiatives exist to assist returning trafficking victims. Surgery! Indonesia’s Anti-Trafficking Law (Law 21/2007), for example, provides a right to healthcare, psychological support and movie essays, counseling, temporary shelter and legal aid. “ N onetheless, returning home and reintegrating after trafficking is often a daunting process,” said Rebecca Surtees, NEXUS Institute Senior Researcher and the study’s lead author. “Many returning trafficking victims do not receive the essay about surgery, assistance and support that they need to recover — despite existing legislation and support programs. As a result, they often have a difficult time reintegrating into their families and communities and moving on with their lives after trafficking. They often face on-going vulnerability.” A man receives medical care in should tense, a community clinic in West Java.
When trafficking victims return home, they often require a range of assistance, including emergency and long-term medical care. Plastic Surgery! They also often require a raft of other services, including counseling, job placement or income generation, access to education, housing and legal assistance. Photo: Peter Biro for NEXUS Institute. A policewoman outside a unit in West Java tasked with investigating crimes against women and children, including human trafficking. Systhesis By! Photo: Peter Biro for english essay about surgery, NEXUS Institute.
Travelers at Jakarta’s main bus station. Reintegration is much more than only essay returning to one’s family. Photo: Peter Biro for NEXUS Institute. Often, trafficking victims do not know what services they are entitled to and how to access them. English About Plastic Surgery! Those who do receive assistance from the government or civil society do not always receive help that is tailored to movie book comparison essays, their individual needs or adequately supports their efforts to reintegrate, according to the study. This is, at least in part, because programs and services do not take into account all forms of trafficking and all types of victims. “ I n Indonesia, as in many countries, there is an english essay about plastic surgery, assumption that most trafficking is for sexual exploitation,” Rebecca Surtees said. “Indonesian trafficking victims include men, women and children who are exploited sexually or for labor.
Reintegration services and support need to be tailored to with, each individual victim’s unique and specific experience and assistance needs.” A domestic worker employed in an Indonesian household. About! Aside from sexual exploitation, a vast number of essay cctv Indonesian women are trafficked each year into domestic servitude in Asia and the Middle East. English About Plastic! Photo: Peter Biro for NEXUS Institute. A man working in a factory in West Java.
Many Indonesians are trafficked for different types of labor. This includes factory work, construction, agriculture and commercial fishing. An increasing number of identified Indonesian trafficking victims are males. Photo: Peter Biro for NEXUS Institute. Workers and fishers in Jakarta’s port. Many trafficked Indonesian migrant workers were not recognized as trafficking victims, including men exploited in the fishing industry, the NEXUS report finds. Photo: Peter Biro for NEXUS Institute. A fisherman in the waters off the port in Jakarta.
Photo: Peter Biro for NEXUS Institute. T he report documents how Indonesians become trapped as victims of trafficking in many countries around the world. “Indonesians are trafficked within the country or exploited abroad, in neighboring Asian countries as well as further afield, including the comparison, Middle East, Africa and Latin America,” said Thaufiek Zulbahary, NEXUS Researcher and english about plastic surgery, co-author of the report. This map shows the various forms of exploitation and destination countries for respondents in argumentative cctv, the NEXUS report. Because of the limited understanding of trafficking among many practitioners and english about plastic surgery, government officials, a lot of trafficking victims are simply unidentified. NEXUS research shows that these victims are often unidentified because police and service providers often do not recognize that men can be trafficked or that victims can be trafficked for labor. Essays! Victims themselves often do not understand that their experiences of exploitation while migrant workers are, in fact, the english essay about, crimes of outline with thesis human trafficking and forced labor. Nearly half of the trafficked persons in the NEXUS study were not formally identified and went unassisted, like this woman in a district of West Java. Photo: Peter Biro for about surgery, NEXUS Institute. “ T hey go unrecognized as trafficked and are often seen instead as failed or irregular migrant workers,” Rebecca Surtees said. “Trafficked persons themselves often do not recognize the nature and extent of their exploitation.
As a consequence, they go unassisted and struggle to argumentative cctv, recover from trafficking and reintegrate into their families and communities.” Those who are formally identified as trafficking victims often face barriers in accessing available services. “ T here is often a lack of information about available reintegration assistance and trafficking victims do not know where to go or who to ask for support,” said Suarni Daeng Caya, NEXUS Researcher and co-author of the english essay plastic surgery, report. “Support programs for trafficked men and boys are also currently very limited.” For those who receive support, assistance is often “one-off” and short-term. This contrasts with longer-term and comprehensive support that most trafficking victims need to achieve sustainable reintegration. A woman at her vegetable stand in essay outline thesis, Jakarta. Economic assistance, such as capital to start a business, is generally offered as a one-off form of assistance for essay plastic, former trafficking victims and not coupled with other forms of support that victims often need, like medical care, counseling, education and training. Photo: Peter Biro for NEXUS Institute.
A man running a small food business in impolicy trade, his village. Food stalls are a common form of small business in Indonesia. Formerly trafficked men typically received short-term, one-off support like a single small grant or loan to start a small business, which, without other services like business or vocational training, makes it difficult to build and sustain an english essay about plastic surgery, economically viable business. Photo: Peter Biro for NEXUS Institute. Nonetheless, there are services in the country that can support trafficking victims in systhesis by, their efforts to reintegrate and recover. “This includes services not only for trafficking victims, but also for exploited migrant workers who have returned home and for persons who are socially and economically vulnerable,” said Laura S. Johnson, NEXUS Researcher and essay, report co-author. “Some programs and services — like access to education — are available to all Indonesian citizens.” Among the report’s recommendations is that trafficking victims need to be supported in making greater use of services and programs that already exist to assist a wide range of beneficiaries, rather than to limit support solely to programs dedicated to systhesis by, assist those who have survived being trafficked. Plastic! Trafficking victims are often eligible for this larger array of programs, but currently they are rarely able to access and systhesis by, obtain these programs’ services and support.
Others key recommendations are that reintegration services — which need to essay about plastic surgery, be long-term, comprehensive and provided by qualified professionals — should be made available to all types of trafficking victims (men, women, girls and boys) as well as victims of all forms of human trafficking. Service providers should work with individual victims to assess their needs and to design a plan for their reintegration; they should work with victims over time to implement and monitor their reintegration process. While these stories, and the report that they are based upon, focus on argumentative essay Indonesia, these findings are relevant for english essay about plastic surgery, many countries around the world. “The experiences recounted by movie Indonesian trafficking victims mirror the experiences of trafficking victims shared with NEXUS researchers in many other places,” Stephen Warnath notes. “In most countries there is much more that can be done to provide critically needed support for the men, women and essay, children who have escaped or been rescued from essay, human trafficking. The insights offered in this and english, other NEXUS reports can help guide governments in their efforts to help trafficking victims return home and rebuild their lives.” A small business in a trafficking-affected village in West Java. Essays! Small business grants are available to trafficking victims and english essay, exploited migrant workers in some areas through government programs. Photo: Peter Biro for NEXUS Institute. A man and boy register for services at a local health clinic in West Java. Trafficking victims are entitled to emergency medical care under the Anti-Trafficking Law.
However, in some cases, returning trafficking victims are unable to access healthcare and other services because they do not have their identity documents. Essays Paragraphs! Photo: Peter Biro for about plastic, NEXUS Institute. A group of women stand outside their houses in essays paragraphs, a village in West Java. Indonesia has several laws intended to protect women and children from violence. English Essay About Surgery! Photo: Peter Biro for NEXUS Institute. The government provides funds to renovate homes deemed uninhabitable. In some cases, returning trafficking victims may be eligible to receive this type of assistance to support their reintegration. Impolicy African Slave! Still, millions of Indonesians live in very poor conditions. Essay About Plastic! Photo: Peter Biro for NEXUS Institute. An elderly man begs on the street in a city in essays, West Java. The government of english essay surgery Indonesia has a range of social assistance policies and programs designed to assist the socially vulnerable.
For example, Indonesia’s government recently established a program which will provide health insurance to impoverished and socially vulnerable persons throughout the country. NEXUS’ report urges greater use of such programs to support the reintegration of trafficking victims and movie essays, prevent re-trafficking. Photo: Peter Biro for NEXUS Institute. Children in a village in West Java. English About Plastic! In Indonesia, primary school education is free of charge. Nonetheless, many Indonesian children are unable to complete their education. A large number of children are unable to continue their education each year because they are forced to essay on the impolicy trade, work or marry. Lack of education may make them vulnerable to trafficking and exploitation. Photo: Peter Biro for surgery, NEXUS Institute.
Photographs in this report, by award-winning photojournalist Peter Biro, illustrate various aspects of daily life in essays, Indonesia. Unless stated otherwise, individuals in these photographs are not trafficking victims. All rights are reserved by the NEXUS Institute. The NEXUS study, Going Home, was made possible through the support of the about, United States Department of State Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons (J/TIP) . The research was implemented in partnership with the Indonesian Ministry of Women’s Empowerment and Child Protection and the Indonesian Ministry of Social Affairs. Read the full report here . Be Written In Past Or Present! You can follow more of NEXUS Institute’s work at www.NEXUSInstitute.net and @NEXUSInstitute. Traffickers and Trafficking Enterprises. Challenges in researching human traffickers and english about, trafficking operations. Traffickers and impolicy of the african slave, Trafficking Enterprises. Challenges in essay about plastic surgery, researching human traffickers and trafficking operations. TTRP has taken a reprieve – and there are changes underfoot!
Until our next and final post, Rebecca Surtees, to whom we are immensely grateful for steadfastly supporting our mission, provides us with a final guest contribution to the blog. This post is adapted from essay, Traffickers and trafficking. English Plastic! Challenges in paragraphs, researching human traffickers and trafficking operations , a paper authored by english essay plastic surgery NEXUS Institute within the paragraphs, framework of the NEXUS Institute and IOM Human Trafficking Research Series funded by the U.S. Department of State’s Office to essay about plastic, Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons (J/TIP). For more information on this topic and book essays, others relating to strategies to obtain and analyse better data for more impact, visit us at www.NEXUSInstitute.net and @NEXUSInstitute . A persistent obstacle to achieving more effective criminal justice results in human trafficking cases is our rudimentary understanding of traffickers and the operations of their criminal enterprises.
This post highlights why this shortcoming exists and english essay, recommends initial steps for ways to supplement and augment current data collection and analysis. While much research exists about trafficking victims, far less is known about the behaviours, motivations and operations of the perpetrators of trafficking. Argumentative! A clearer picture of english surgery how traffickers operate can be used in the development of criminal justice and social welfare responses to human trafficking – informing policies, strategies and interventions. Largely, what is known about traffickers and trafficking is drawn from trafficking victims. While much can be learned from this data, there are also limitations in terms of what this data set does (and does not) tell us. There are four key challenges in attempting to understand traffickers and trafficking operations through research with trafficking victims. These are: The impact of selection bias: which trafficked persons are interviewed (and what subgroups can reveal) . Trafficking victims with whom researchers and service providers come into contact are largely those who have been officially identified and/or assisted. Thus, information about traffickers comes from the experiences of this group and not from those who have not been identified and/or have not been assisted.
Limitations in essay on the impolicy of the slave, the information trafficking victims can provide about plastic surgery, traffickers and essay outline, their operations . While victims may have some information about their exploiters and the trafficking process, they are unlikely to have a comprehensive understanding about traffickers and/or their operations. Victims will not necessarily have contact with the full range of actors involved in the process, particularly high-level strategists. As a consequence, trafficked persons are likely able to provide only certain types of limited information and are generally unfamiliar with the about plastic surgery, intricacies of the trafficking operation. The ability of victims to supply information about traffickers . What trafficking victims disclose may be largely a function of what they feel safe and comfortable to reveal. Some may fear reprisals from essays paragraphs, traffickers, or mistrust authorities. Others may wish only to english, put their trafficking experience behind them. As a result, many victims may not be able or willing to provide information about their traffickers and trafficking experiences. Victims may also be more open to talking about some individuals and actors involved in the trafficking process as opposed to others, which influences what data is argumentative essay, available.
Ethical issues related to some types of questions . Researchers must consider ethical issues in research with trafficked persons, not least the stress and about plastic surgery, difficulty of being interviewed about trafficking experiences and exploiters. When service providers collect information from trafficking victims they are assisting, there is also a blurring of the roles and boundaries between research and service provision, which can impact the data and undermine feelings of comfort and trust. Nonetheless, recent studies suggest potentially fruitful entry points for research about traffickers and their operations, drawing on two distinct types of data: Criminal j ustice statistics , including police investigations and outline, court documents. Researchers interested in learning about the perpetrators of trafficking and their criminal operations should more intensely analyse criminal justice statistics. Official crime statistics provide information in terms of the criminal justice system response to trafficking, including what is working well and about plastic surgery, what needs improvement. Paragraphs! Police files and english, investigations are useful in piecing together the trafficker side of the puzzle. Court transcripts, where legally accessible, reveal information about the individuals involved (including descriptions of traffickers’ lives, motivations and actions) as well as individual cases and movement through the criminal justice system. A number of studies illustrate the depth and breadth of information that can be drawn from impolicy slave, criminal justice data including: Another Delivery from Tashkent , Understanding human trafficking: Development of typologies of traffickers , Women who traffic women: the role of women in human trafficking networks – Dutch cases , The organisation of english essay plastic surgery human trafficking. Outline With Thesis! A study of criminal involvement in sexual exploitation in Sweden, Finland and Estonia and Analysis of Some Highly-Structured Networks of Human Smuggling and Trafficking from Albania and Bulgaria to Belgium . There are, of course, methodological limitations within these data sets, some of which mirror limitations of victim-centred data.
For example, there are biases in terms of what and who is included in about plastic, this data set – who gets arrested, charged and convicted. Essays Paragraphs! Further, trafficking is under-reported, under-detected and, as a consequence, also under-investigated and under-prosecuted. The reported number of trafficking cases is also potentially deceptive and may reflect an under- or over-estimation of those that come into the criminal justice system. English Surgery! The functioning of a criminal justice system also informs the essay, available data. Plastic! Different information gathering tools, variable skills of cctv criminal justice practitioners, and the legal and policy framework can all play significant roles in what data is plastic surgery, generated and what this data reveals. Such selection effects inform what we know and understand about traffickers and their operations.
Primary research with traffickers . Little research has been done directly with individuals and organisations engaged in this crime. However, primary research can reveal much about who traffickers are in different settings and markets; their roles and levels of engagement; how trafficking takes place; how it differs according to location, destination and form of exploitation; traffickers’ motivations and their relationships to the persons they exploit; how human trafficking operations work within the broader market; and trafficker perceptions and feelings about comparison, their “work”. This might be collected by conducting ethnographic studies, individual case studies, interviews, perpetrator surveys, life histories and so on. The small body of existing research on essay plastic surgery traffickers presents important insights. Not infrequently, it begins to reveal a picture that differs, at least in part, from that based on information from trafficking victims, law enforcement, service providers and other anti-trafficking professionals. Essay Outline With! For example, a number of studies describe how traffickers perceive their role in english essay surgery, trafficking operations – for example as facilitators in the migration process or business persons helping out prospective migrants. This benign, even positive, self-characterization of their criminal activity introduces considerations that expand our understanding of traffickers, their decision-making and their actions. See for movie book, example, Techniques of neutralizing the about plastic surgery, trafficking of women.
A case study of an active trafficker in Greece . Comparison! Others focus on the trafficking operations, at english surgery different levels and argumentative essay cctv, involvement of traffickers, including Sex trafficking: an essay about plastic surgery, exploratory study interviewing traffickers , From Victims to Victimizers: Interviews with 25 Ex-pimps in Chicago , A report on trafficking in women and children in India and Organised immigration crime: a post-conviction study . And a recent book, Human Trafficking in Cambodia , is based on essay of the african slave trade interviews with incarcerated traffickers involved in sex trafficking. Research with traffickers is difficult and english about surgery, complex. Risks (to researchers and respondents) must be carefully weighed, particularly in locales where organised crime is prominent. Researchers’ access to essay, traffickers may be limited or not easily arranged. Responsiveness may also be a function of when and where traffickers are accessed. Interviewing traffickers when they are in custody will likely affect what they are willing to talk about and how they frame their narrative. Careful thought is english essay about plastic surgery, needed as to what information one collects from traffickers as well as in what context and why.
There are also ethical considerations to consider when researching traffickers, in essay outline thesis, terms of holding information that may help identify victims or observing, and possibly even inadvertently participating in, the trafficking process. Nonetheless, there are opportunities for collecting information directly from essay, persons involved in various parts of the trafficking process. Such information will complement the current dataset derived largely from an essay be written in past, trafficking victims. Improved understanding of traffickers and trafficking operations requires looking beyond the victim-based dataset to other information, including traffickers themselves. Governments, researchers and others need to recognise the shortcomings of english about plastic victim-based understandings of traffickers and their trafficking enterprises. Relying primarily on argumentative essay information provided by trafficking victims to study traffickers results in substantial biases and selection effects influencing our knowledge of traffickers and trafficking operations. It also contributes to a “black and white” picture of trafficking victims and essay, traffickers, when the reality is often far more complex. In moving toward a better understanding of traffickers and essay on the slave trade, their operations, new sources of information and new methods and approaches need to be developed and refined. This need is more than methodological. It is essay plastic surgery, also an issue of systhesis by perspective in which an english essay about surgery, understanding and explanation of trafficking is derived largely (and sometimes exclusively) by essays considering the english about, behaviours, actions and backgrounds of trafficking victims to the exclusion of the perpetrators of the crime whose actions and motivations should be the primary concern if combating trafficking is systhesis by, our objective. After trafficking.
The reintegration needs and experiences of trafficked children. After trafficking. The (re)integration needs and experiences of trafficked children. Regular contributor Rebecca Surtees from the NEXUS Institute is back this week. This post focuses on about surgery one of the findings identified in “After Trafficking. Experiences and challenges in the (re)integration of argumentative cctv trafficked persons in the GMS” , a regional study of (re)integration in the Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS). The research study was commissioned by the six COMMIT governments as part of the 2 nd and 3 rd COMMIT Sub-regional Plan of about plastic Action (2008-2010 and 2011-2013) . The study, conducted by NEXUS Institute , analysed the effectiveness of (re)integration processes and structures from the point of view of trafficked persons and the service providers that support them, uncovering whether and to what extent services currently offered to systhesis by, trafficking victims and their families are meeting their (re)integration needs, including any unmet assistance needs. The study was coordinated by the United Nations Inter-Agency Project on Human Trafficking (UNIAP) and was overseen by a Regional Working Group comprised of Save the essay, Children UK, World Vision International, the International Organization for Migration (IOM), the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), NEXUS Institute and UNIAP. This study was based on in-depth interviews with 252 trafficked persons from all six countries in the Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS) about their experiences of (re)integration, including successes and challenges, as well as future plans and aspirations. The study included persons who had been identified and assisted, as well as those who were not identified and/or did not receive assistance. Understanding the diverse and complex post-trafficking trajectories sheds light on a wide range of issues and dynamics at play in the (re)integration processes in the GMS.
It also highlights both the strengths and weaknesses of existing (re)integration mechanisms and systhesis by, processes. Trafficked children (anyone under the age of eighteen years at the time of exploitation) accounted for english essay about plastic, approximately 40% of the study’s respondents and essay outline thesis, appeared in each country’s sample (totalling 24 boys and essay, 83 girls). These trafficked children were primarily exploited within the region, although in a handful of cases the children were exploited in neighbouring countries, namely Malaysia and essays, Indonesia. Children were trafficked for sexual exploitation (37), labour exploitation (23), begging and street selling (12), forced marriage (5) and for both sexual and labour exploitation (2). Essay! In four instances, there was an intervention before the child was exploited.
Developing effective and comparison essays, responsive (re)integration programmes requires an understanding of these children’s trafficking experiences, as well as their pre-trafficking circumstances and post-trafficking lives. Trafficked children, by virtue of their age, maturity and trafficking experience, had specific and often specialised assistance needs. Some (re)integration organisations were specialised in supporting the (re)integration of trafficked children and offered comprehensive and tailored services to children of different ages and at different stages of development. However, amongst the trafficked children interviewed for essay surgery, this study, specialised assistance and age appropriate services were not always available. In some cases, (re)integration services for children did not differ substantially from those for adults and systhesis by, most children did not describe assistance tailored to their individual needs as children. Plastic Surgery! Indeed overall there were limited specialised (re)integration services for trafficked children. Issues in the provision of child-specific (re)integration support centred around different service areas including: 1. Argumentative Essay Cctv! Appropriate accommodation for trafficked children. Most trafficked children were assisted in english essay about surgery, shelter programmes at some stage after trafficking.
This was an cctv, important form of assistance for those who were unable to return home – e.g. because they were without parents or a viable family environment. However in too many instances children stayed in shelters for long periods of essay about surgery time, often many years. Essay Outline With! One girl in Cambodia, for example, had lived eight years in a centre that assisted trafficked children. Essay About Plastic Surgery! In very few instances was “kinship care” (care provided by relatives or extended family) pursued in spite of systhesis by being the best alternative when family reunification was not possible. There were also very few alternative placement options for children who could not be (re)integrated in their home environment – for essay about plastic surgery, example, foster care, small group homes or semi-independent living. There was also limited support for trafficked children and systhesis by, youth in transitioning to an independent life when unable to return to family/community. 2. Medical assistance. Receiving medical assistance was important for trafficked children given the impact that trafficking had on their physical development and well being. It was also critical given the extreme violence most children had suffered while trafficked and the almost total lack of medical care they had received while trafficked.
One Vietnamese girl, assisted in a shelter programme, identified medical care as a key form of support, because her family was too poor to pay for medical treatment. English About Surgery! The availability of medical care in outline with thesis, the shelter (and the lack of this assistance in the community) was a key factor in her decision to accept assistance. Trafficked children who stayed in shelters general received medical care. However, those who did not reside in a shelter generally did not receive medical care after trafficking. Many respondents spoke about the prohibitive cost of medical care for their families, which meant that, for many trafficked children, trafficking related injuries and illnesses went untreated. Even when medical assistance was provided, staff did not always have the english about surgery, training and essay outline with, skills to provide sensitive and appropriate services to trafficked children, which is critical when treating highly traumatised and extensively violated children. 3. English Essay! Psychosocial support and in past or present tense, counselling. Counselling and support was available to trafficked children in surgery, many shelter settings. However, the extent to which counselling was offered by professionally trained counsellors with the requisite skills for working with vulnerable children was unclear. Interviews with trafficked children suggested that they received informal, emotional support more commonly than professional, child-specific counselling. There was a need for culturally and child appropriate counselling, as well as support in developing coping tools like how to systhesis by, deal with stress, anger, conflict and so on.
4. Education, including integration into english plastic surgery, formal schooling. Many trafficked children had very low education levels and often lacked basic literacy and essay on the impolicy of the, numeracy skills. Some had never been to school whereas others left school when they were trafficked. Options for educational opportunities were generally limited to children assisted in a shelter programme. Indeed, a number of english about trafficked children and essay thesis, their families accepted assistance precisely because it afforded them access to education. Many assistance organisations did not help trafficked children in returning to school, nor were state social workers or community leaders involved in supporting school reinsertion.
Moreover, there were often barriers to school reinsertion in the community – e.g. bureaucratic procedures and lack of cooperation by teachers and school administrators. More than one trafficked child was told that they were “too old” to english, return to school, but were offered no option for “catch-up classes” or information about alternatives like non-formal education or vocational education/training. 5. Life skills education. Trafficked children commonly lacked basic life skills – e.g. Of The African Slave! interpersonal skills, communication and listening skills, skills in negotiation, problem solving and decision making and so on. Life skills were vital to help trafficked children move on english about plastic from trafficking and to successfully (re)integrate in their family and/or community. Trafficked children and youth interviewed for essay on the impolicy african slave, this study often seemed to suffer from a lack of confidence and low self-esteem. One boy, trafficked for labour in essay about, China, described his feelings about being tricked into his trafficking situation.
He talked about how he thought there must be something wrong with him because he always had bad experiences and now had been “cheated again.” Later, while accommodated at a shelter, he came into conflict with another boy staying there and chose to essay with, run away because he didn’t know how to plastic surgery, resolve the essays, problem. 6. Vocational training. Depending on the age and needs of the trafficked child, vocational training may be appropriate. In many cases, older children and youth chose to pursue vocational training opportunities. English Essay! Such opportunities were generally offered while staying in shelters with few options for vocational training in home communities. In some countries there were restrictions on when children could start vocational training, and in one case, a trafficked girl who had returned home to Myanmar was prevented from attending vocational training because she was “too young” (although unable to return to school because she was “too old”). Instead, she worked for a year until she was eligible to be trained. A determination of when a child should (and should not) attend vocational training requires a more flexible approach from service providers.
7. Economic support (to the trafficked child/youth or their family) While some trafficked children and youth directly received economic support, it was commonly given to their parents/guardians. Even when children did receive support themselves, they often handed it over to their parents/family. In some situations, economic support translated into positive economic outcomes for the family, and by implication, the child. This appeared to be particularly successful when coupled with assistance for the child to return to school, including not only money for school fees, but also support for purchasing books and uniforms. However, it was not always the case that supporting the family as a whole was automatically positive for the children. For example, some families depended on children to contribute to the family’s income and providing small business opportunities meant that children worked in that business, sometimes in lieu of attending school. In other cases, children had no voice in terms of how economic support was pursued. Exploring economic options necessarily involved deciding when to work directly with the child toward his/her skills development and economic empowerment, as well as when and how to work with the child’s parent or guardian. For example, one boy, trafficked internally in Myanmar for labour, was assisted to return to essays paragraphs, school by a local community-based programme. He was also provided with assistance for his family to set up a poultry farm, but the farm could not meet his family’s needs.
His father was ill and unable to work every day. Therefore the about, boy also needed to continue to contribute to his family’s income. As he explained, the education assistance was important but it was not a complete solution to his situation. The overarching factor, ultimately, should have been a determination of the child’s best interest, which could only have been assessed by systhesis by involving the child in this decision-making process. 8. Legal assistance and support during legal proceedings. Many trafficked children, including some who were very young, were involved as victim/witnesses in legal proceedings against their traffickers and there seemed to be limited options to decline to be involved.
One girl from Myanmar, exploited in a factory in Thailand, explained that she did not want to give testimony in court but the police “encouraged her strongly”. Trafficked children, like adults, generally gave testimony and statements on multiple occasions through translation and in essay surgery, an environment where they did not understand the language. Moreover, victim/witnesses were often accommodated in shelters for long periods of time while legal proceedings were pursued, with little to no contact with their family members. 9. Family mediation, counselling and support. Many trafficked children came from problematic family environments and were unable to return to live there because problems were unresolved. In some cases returning to the family environment may have been possible with appropriate mediation and counselling by service providers and practitioners. Argumentative Essay! This form of assistance was generally lacking in the region.
Some organisations worked with children while they lived in the family/community setting, as an alternative to shelter-based care. While not an option for english about plastic, all trafficked children (some originated from very unhealthy and difficult environments), it was a constructive approach for essays, families, which, when supported during (re)integration (e.g. through family mediation, monitoring, financial assistance), helped to forge a functional family environment. 10. Case management and follow-up after (re)integration. Children were likely to require a longer period of monitoring and follow-up as part of (re)integration given their specific situation and vulnerabilities and because they were not in a position to care for themselves as children. In addition, the types of assistance needed by children – e.g. education – are longer term, often a matter of about plastic surgery several years.
One Vietnamese girl, who was trafficked internally for cctv, labour, was first assisted to return to school in 2008. When interviewed in 2012 she was still receiving support and was in regular contact with the NGO staff that supported her. By contrast, some trafficked children received little to essay surgery, no case management and monitoring. 11. Child-specific protocols and procedures in the provision of (re)integration support. Many trafficked children had been victimised from a very young age and over long periods of essay thesis time. Interacting with them required tailoring support to their age, maturity and english, developmental stage.
In many programmes, child victims were assisted alongside adults with no discernible difference in the handling of these cases. The implementation of child-specific protocols and procedures appeared to with thesis, have been very limited. It was also concerning that children were not consulted about their assistance in many cases, with the needs of trafficked children determined solely by service providers, or by english about surgery service providers in consultation with their parents or guardians. One girl from Myanmar, trafficked for begging and should be written in past or present tense, street selling in Malaysia, was assisted by an organisation upon her return, assistance that she very much needed and was grateful to receive. However, when asked whether she had any concerns about receiving assistance, she expressed frustration at not having been actively involved in decision making about the assistance she received and plans for her (re)integration and life over the longer term. She explained that when assistance staff came to meet her, they spoke only to her mother. They did not consult with her.
Trafficked children were significantly represented in this study, signalling that children in the region are at high risk of english plastic surgery exploitation and human trafficking. While children seemed to accept assistance when they perceived it would benefit them, overall assistance upon return was lacking and frequently was only offered in systhesis by, connection with shelter stays. Greater attention (and resources) are needed to more adequately support the specific and diverse needs of trafficked children in moving on from their trafficking experiences, particularly in the long term and in their home communities. This will involve not only improving the capacity of anti-trafficking professionals working with children, but also mainstreaming (re)integration services for english about surgery, trafficked children into the social protection framework which should, in principle, be equipped with specialised skills in working with vulnerable children. Comparison! Critically, trafficked children need to be (voluntarily) involved in the development and essay plastic surgery, monitoring of on the impolicy of the slave trade (re)integration programmes designed to assist them. Only with their participation and input will (re)integration programmes and policies in the region be able to meet their needs and interests. Trapped at sea. Essay Plastic Surgery! Using the legal and regulatory framework to combat trafficking at sea. Trapped at sea. Using the legal and regulatory framework to combat trafficking at sea.
Once again, we welcome Rebecca Surtees from the NEXUS Institute. This post is adapted from “ Trapped at sea. Using the Legal and Regulatory Framework to Prevent and Combat the Trafficking of Seafarers and Fishers ”, published in 2013 in the Groningen Journal of International Law. Vol. 1, No. 2: Human Trafficking. The article was prepared in the context of the NEXUS/IOM project entitled: Taking stock and moving forward. Considering methods, ethics and approaches in trafficking research and data collection, funded by U.S. Department of State’s Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons (J/TIP).
The original article is also available at www.NEXUSInstitute.net and www.WarnathGroup.com . Recognition of the diversity of trafficking for forced labour in recent years has included increased attention to exploitation within the essays paragraphs, seafaring and commercial fishing industries. It is clear, based upon our research, not only english essay surgery that human trafficking takes place, but that such cases are aided by sector-specific aspects that heighten levels of risk and vulnerability for seafarers and fishers that may lend themselves to essay of the african, abuses, such as isolation at english essay about plastic sea, lax regulation, oversight and enforcement, and essay cctv, limited contact with authorities on english plastic surgery land and at sea. Trafficked seafarers and fishers in various regions of the should be written or present, world are exposed to a range of hardships, including: the english about plastic surgery, lack of basic necessities like food and water for extended periods; substandard and often inhumane conditions; long work hours, sometimes days on end, with only a few minutes of break in this time; lack of any compensation; restricted or no freedom of movement; and violence against them. Given that research by argumentative essay NEXUS Institute has documented a spectrum of abuse against seafarers and fishers as well as a context of heightened risk and vulnerability, greater understanding is needed of the english about plastic, full range of abuse at sea experienced by seafarers and essay on the impolicy of the african slave trade, fishers – including cases that rise to the level of human trafficking. Addressing exploitation in these sectors requires an effective and essay surgery, appropriate transnational legal and regulatory framework, which is enforced across jurisdictions. Understanding the essay impolicy, various legal and regulatory opportunities to prevent and combat trafficking at sea is an essential starting point for future discussion and intervention. International law that may be used to combat trafficking at sea falls generally into three areas: 1) International anti-trafficking law : including human rights law as it applies to trafficking-related exploitation. Primary instruments of english about plastic surgery international anti-trafficking law include the United Nations Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (Trafficking Protocol) and the Council of Europe Convention on Action Against Trafficking in Human Beings (CoE Convention);
2) International maritime law : the body of laws, conventions and treaties that govern international private business or other matters involving ships and thesis, shipping; and. 3) The international law of the essay about, sea : the should an essay in past, body of public international law that primarily draws on the United Nations Convention on english essay surgery the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS); almost universally recognised as establishing the regime of movie comparison essays law and order in english essay about plastic, the world’s oceans and seas. Understanding the laws that can be used to improve the situations of fishers and seafarers requires parsing these complex bodies of international law relevant to trafficking at should or present sea. “Trafficking at english essay about sea”, in the context of this discussion, involves seafarers and fishers undertaking at-sea activities , including the transport of cargo, fishing, fish processing and transportation while on vessels, rafts, fishing platforms or otherwise offshore. It does not include other examples of trafficking in the shipping or fishing sectors nor does it include shore-based operations (e.g. port-based work, shore-based fish harvesting or fish/seafood processing and packaging). The definition of a fisher is found in essay outline, the ILO Work in Fishing Convention (subsequently referred to as the WIF Convention); in lay terms, a fisher is any individual who is a member of the crew on essay about plastic board a fishing vessel. This differs from a seafarer, who according to the Maritime Labour Convention (subsequently referred to as MLC) is “any person who is should an essay, employed or engaged in any capacity on board a ship to english about plastic surgery, which this Convention applies”. The MLC applies to all ships, publicly or privately owned, ordinarily engaged in commercial activities, other than ships engaged in fishing.
There may be an overlap between seafarers and fishers, particularly in should an essay in past or present, relation to fish carriers. Plastic Surgery! For example, in our study of trafficked seafarers from Ukraine, a number of men were trafficked on vessels engaged in illegal crabbing in the waters off of Russia. The overlap is evident here as the men used their training as seafarers to operate the crabbing vessels, but also worked as fishers directly responsible for the crab catch. Impolicy Of The African Trade! That being said, as all of their work took place on board a fishing vessel, they would be considered fishers as they fall under the definition of fishers according to essay about plastic, the WIF Convention. Distinguishing between seafarers and fishers according to the type of vessel (fishing or merchant) on which they work is important because maritime law offers different protections for individuals on board, depending on the classification of a ship. Under maritime law, fishing vessels are less regulated than merchant fleets and crews aboard fishing vessels are, arguably, more vulnerable to abuse and exploitation, including human trafficking. Moreover, a different legal and regulatory framework for trafficked persons exists at sea than on an essay or present land. Trafficking at sea often differs in how prevention, protection of victims and english plastic surgery, prosecution of trafficking crimes may (or may not) take place and by systhesis by whom. Essay About Plastic Surgery! Trafficked seafarers and fishers may find themselves aboard vessels that are unflagged or flagged to another State, ashore in a foreign port or never entering port, and/or suffering abuse and exploitation on the high seas or in waters that fall within the territory of one or various States. The issue of jurisdiction is particularly relevant in essays paragraphs, the context of trafficking at sea given the increased likelihood of trans-jurisdiction, with merchant and fishing vessels moving easily and often between jurisdictions.
Determining which State(s) has (have) legal and regulatory responsibilities to address trafficking at sea not only depends on the nationality of the victim and of the trafficker(s), but also on where the vessel is (i.e. the ports and waters it may enter) and essay about, the country to which the vessel is registered. On the high seas jurisdiction is reliant on the system of flag State control . All vessels must fly the flag of the outline with, country to which they are registered: the State under whose protection the ship sails and to whose laws it must adhere. This is english essay about, known as flag State responsibility. In reality, many vessels fly what are known as “flags of comparison essays convenience” (FoCs). This refers to the business practice of registering a merchant ship or fishing vessel in a sovereign State different from that of the english essay surgery, ship owners to reduce operating costs or avoid certain regulations. FoCs are from States with an open register that usually are unable or unwilling to take seriously their flag State responsibilities, either in terms of outline with enforcing their existing national laws or in terms of english essay about implementing laws that comply with their responsibilities under the treaties they have ratified. This, then, provides space for the perpetration of a raft of potential violations, including the exploitation of seafarers and fishers in ways that constitute human trafficking at sea. Lack of regulation further limits opportunities for identification of those already aboard vessels or for escape from trafficking.
Liberia, for example, is a commonly used FoC. Should Be Written In Past! The Liberian Registry is english about plastic surgery, one of the largest and most active shipping registers, with approximately 4,000 ships registered to the Liberian flag in 2013. But, according to the 2013 Trafficking in Persons Report issued by the U.S. Department of movie comparison State , the Government of plastic surgery Liberia does not fully comply with the paragraphs, minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking. The Liberian government only recently achieved its first trafficking conviction using its 2005 anti-trafficking law and, overall, has made only english essay minimal efforts to protect trafficking victims. If a trafficking situation were to should an essay be written in past tense, be identified on a ship flying Liberia’s flag on the high seas, Liberia’s anti-trafficking legislation would apply and the protection of trafficked seafarers or fishers on board would depend on the Government of Liberia’s ability or willingness to enforce that legislation. It is concerning that the most common FoCs, like Liberia, are those of States that have not brought their national laws and anti-trafficking efforts in accordance with the english essay about, requirements of the Trafficking Protocol and, where relevant, the CoE Convention. A further complication is that seafarers and fishers are often recruited through crewing agencies that may or may not have an with thesis, official presence in their home countries.
In this regard, while there are crucial differences between cases of trafficking at sea and other forms of trafficking exploitation that must be taken into account, there are also important parallels and similarities underlying this form of trafficking that can be noted. For example, trafficked fishers and seafarers may pay hefty recruitment fees to essay about surgery, find work on board vessels. Issues of book essays fraud and essay plastic surgery, deception in contracts and/or the recruitment process, subcontracting, and multiple levels of culpability from should be written in past tense, crewing agencies to vessel owners complicate problems for fishers and seafarers who find themselves in essay, exploitative situations. The lessons that can be learned in addressing such challenges (e.g. requiring recruitment fees to be borne by the employer or ensuring that trafficked persons are not criminalised for movie book essays, crimes they commit as part of their exploitation) can and english about plastic, should be applied to exploitation in other sectors. The quality of current national legislation in many States remains a limiting factor in terms of States’ ability to combat human trafficking and States need to bring their legislation in line with their obligations under anti-trafficking law and maritime law (and enforce their laws on their vessels as required by the law of the sea). A commitment is also needed by States to in past or present tense, implement and english about, enforce the existing obligations from movie book comparison, international anti-trafficking law, international maritime law and surgery, the law of the sea to combat trafficking at sea. This will require education and training of essay with those working in the anti-trafficking and fishing and seafaring sectors as well as cooperation and coordination between the different sectors. It will also require monitoring and enforcement by and of english essay about States, and also likely incentives and sanctions for those States who do not live up to their obligations to prevent and combat trafficking at sea. Ethical principles in the re/integration of trafficked persons.
Experiences from the Balkans. Ethical principles in the re/integration of trafficked persons. Experiences from the Balkans. This week we welcome back Rebecca Surtees. Systhesis By! Rebecca is Senior Researcher at NEXUS Institute, an international human rights research and policy center in english essay about surgery, Washington, DC.
NEXUS Institute is cctv, dedicated to combating human trafficking as well as other human rights abuses. About Plastic Surgery! This post is written in conjunction with a newly released report on an essay be written developing common ethical principles within anti-trafficking re/integration. In the Balkan region, human trafficking continues to be a pressing issue. One central aspect of anti-trafficking work is about plastic surgery, re/integration; the essays paragraphs, process of recovery and economic and social inclusion following a trafficking experience. Re/integration services are often key to trafficked persons’ ability to recover and move on with their lives. And yet few organisations and programmes have developed ethical principles according to which their re/integration work is implemented, monitored and evaluated. In response to this gap, a set of ethical principles for re/integration programmes and policies have been developed in essay surgery, the Balkan region. These principles – a new and significant development in re/integration work – were developed by NEXUS Institute in collaboration with eleven re/integration NGOs supported under the Trafficking Victims Re/Integration Programme (TVRP), funded by the King Baudouin Foundation and GIZ. These principles, grounded in direct re/integration work and developed collaboratively from the bottom-up, aim to hold re/integration practitioners and essay of the african slave trade, policy makers to a higher standard and to be accountable in english about surgery, their work. They are a first step for all of essay outline us working on re/integration toward enhanced re/integration support for trafficked persons.
Ethical principles provide a foundation for the development, implementation and evaluation of a rights-based re/integration response to human trafficking. Essay Surgery! Principles underpinning re/integration work relate to attitudes, rights and duties about human welfare – for example: “respect for the autonomy of service users” or the “promotion of human welfare”. Principles are much broader in scope than standards , which are, very generally, a set of rules for tense, ensuring quality re/integration programming and regulating a professional and accountable system of essay surgery re/integration service provision. Standards serve as the foundation for the development of practical guidelines that are used by service providers in their day-to-day re/integration work with trafficked persons, in a variety of cctv care settings. Guidelines are instructions on how to do something; they are the english essay about, instruments that service providers use in order to systhesis by, put standards into operational practice. Standards and guidelines exist in some places and not in others. In any case, ethical principles are the starting point from which standards and guidelines get articulated and underpin the english essay surgery, theoretical framing of re/integration.
Professional ethics concern matters of right and wrong conduct, good and essay thesis, bad qualities of character and the professional responsibilities attached to relationships in a work context. Ethical principles are intended for essay about surgery, use by any professional working in the field of anti-trafficking re/integration, whether for GOs, NGOs or IOs, from a range of different fields including social work, psychology, medicine, law enforcement, law and on the of the african slave, so on. Because ethical principles are the foundation of a human rights based response to trafficking and re/integration work, they are relevant for policy makers and legislators as well as service providers and practitioners. Some of these ethical principles are mandated by international and national legislation, making their safeguarding not only an issue of ethics but also a legal requirement. English Essay About Plastic! For example, there are a range of legal issues associated with the argumentative essay cctv, collection, transfer and sharing of sensitive data (sometimes the subject of legislation on english essay about data protection), such as data collected in the context of re/integration case management. In some cases, re/integration programmes and essay outline with thesis, activities may be governed by multiple legal and ethical codes – for example, the country of the organisation managing the programme, the country where the programme is being implemented (if different from the former) and/or the country funding the essay, programme – making implementation challenging. Twelve ethical principles in the re/integration of trafficked persons. Principle #1. ‘Do no harm’. Re/integration programmes and policies should “do no harm” to trafficked persons.
Principle #2. Movie! Informed consent. Trafficked persons have the right to full and accurate information about re/integration assistance and their consent in accepting this support should be fully informed. Principle #3. Confidentiality. Trafficked persons’ confidentiality must be strictly guarded in essay about, the context of re/integration work. Principle #4. Anonymity. Re/integration professionals must ensure that all information shared is sufficiently anonymous to systhesis by, prevent trafficked persons from being identified. Principle #5.
Privacy. Trafficked persons have the right to privacy, to be free of unwanted or unsanctioned intrusion at all stages of their re/integration. Principle #6. Non-discrimination . Trafficked persons should not be treated unfavourably or face negative or prejudicial attitudes due to their trafficking experience. Principle #7. Plastic Surgery! Safety and security.
Trafficked persons’ safety and security is paramount and must be assessed (and responded to) throughout the re/integration process. Principle #8. Sensitivity. Trafficked persons must be treated with sensitivity and respect throughout the systhesis by, re/integration process. Principle #9.
Empowerment. Trafficked persons should be equipped with the skills, ability and plastic, confidence to recover and lead an be written or present tense, autonomous life. Empowerment should be fostered throughout the re/integration process. Principle #10. English Plastic! Beneficiary participation. Beneficiaries should be (voluntarily) involved in their own individual re/integration plan as well as, where appropriate, the design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of the re/integration services, programmes and policies. Principle #11. Data protection . Data collected about trafficked persons in the context of re/integration must be strictly protected in adherence with national and international legal standards. Principle #12. Child protection and the “best interests of the should an essay be written tense, child” . Re/integration programmes and policies should ensure that trafficked children are protected and their best interests are the primary consideration. These ethical principles are often interrelated and so will often be considered in combination.
For example, confidentiality and anonymity are complementary in that keeping the identity of programme beneficiaries anonymous is one means of maintaining confidentiality when working toward re/integration. Similarly, protecting confidentiality is essential to ensure both the safety of english about surgery victims and also data protection. Maximising beneficiary participation is often central in ensuring non-discrimination. And practising non-discrimination and approaching victims with sensitivity are elements of ensuring that the re/integration ‘does no harm’. The real life impact of ethical principles on essays the re/integration of trafficked persons in the Balkans. Supporting beneficiary participation and empowerment. One re/integration organisation spends a great deal of time resolving administrative issues with beneficiaries – e.g. English Surgery! civil registration, obtaining new documents and so on. Caseworkers explain to beneficiaries the different steps involved in the process – e.g. what office to contact, how to get there, how to fill in forms and how to submit documents. The organisation supports this process but requires beneficiaries to directly undertake this process to learn how to take on this responsibility themselves.
Gaining informed consent. “Fadila” was offered to paragraphs, stay in a shelter because she faced conflict in her family and english surgery, discrimination from family members. However, she declined this assistance because she was told that the comparison essays, shelter was closed and she could not have contact with her family while there. The state social worker, the police officer and the social worker from the re/integration programme spent time with her and her family to explain the english, programme, including that it was voluntary and she could leave at any time. They provided both written and verbal explanations of the programme and services offered. Eventually she agreed to enter the argumentative, programme. Breeching the principle of ‘do no harm’ “Emina”, a trafficked girl, was involved in two legal proceedings related to english essay plastic, her trafficking experience – one for human trafficking, the other for rape. Staff from the argumentative essay cctv, Centre for Social Work arranged for Emina to provide testimony in english, both cases on the same day to save time and reduce travel costs. Emina, however, was heavily traumatised by having to cope with both cases at the same time as well as facing both her trafficker and rapist.
Afterward, she suffered a nervous breakdown and tried to commit suicide. Breeching confidentiality, anonymity, privacy, child protection and data protection. One organisation working on essay thesis re/integration faced a situation in which it was legally obliged by the state social services to share case files of their child beneficiaries. Essay About Plastic Surgery! However, the staff subsequently learned that these case files had not been securely and confidentially stored but rather had been left in boxes in the corridors of on the african social services’ offices, accessible to anyone who wished to look at them. Breeching sensitivity, privacy and confidentiality. “Marija” was a trafficking victim who approached the national employment agency in her hometown in an effort to find a job as part of her re/integration. English Essay Plastic! A clerk at the admissions desk recognised her and began asking her questions about her life.
The clerk also told the social workers who were accompanying her very personal things about movie essays, her family and private life, many of which were negative and which Marija found embarrassing. After this incident, Marija chose not to register with the english essay about, national employment agency and, moreover, expressed a wish to leave her hometown and essay impolicy of the trade, be integrated in another community instead. While ethical principles have often been implicit in the work of re/integration organisations, there is english essay about plastic surgery, great value in identifying and explicitly articulating them. This includes how an organisation’s ethical principles’ can be operationalised in day-to-day re/integration work and if/how organisations face challenges in adhering to these principles. It will also be important to continue to on the impolicy slave trade, discuss and adapt ethical principles, not least because re/integration is a dynamic process and regularly involves new issues and challenges. To ensure successful, sustainable and ethical re/integration programming and policies, new ethical principles (or the further articulation of these existing principles) are likely to be needed as well as the tools for implementation and monitoring of those principles. Researching the unseen: Challenges in human trafficking research. Researching the english essay about, unseen: Challenges in human trafficking research.
TTRP is pleased to have Rebecca Surtees as a guest blogger this week. Rebecca is Senior Researcher at NEXUS Institute, an international human rights research and policy center in Washington, DC. NEXUS Institute is essays paragraphs, dedicated to essay about, combating human trafficking as well as other human rights abuses. Essay African Slave! Recent research studies include: Trafficked at english plastic sea. An Essay! The exploitation of Ukrainian seafarers and essay surgery, fishers; No place like home. Challenges in the reintegration of trafficked women; Trafficked men, unwilling victims; Out of sight?
Challenges in the identification of trafficked persons; Leaving the past behind: Why some trafficking victims decline assistance; Beneath the surface. Methodological challenges in trafficking research ; and Measuring success of counter trafficking interventions in the criminal justice sector . Researching the unseen. Much human trafficking research is based on data from trafficked persons who have been formally identified and assisted by anti-trafficking organisations and professionals. An Essay In Past Or Present Tense! This type of research reveals a great deal about their pre-trafficking situations and vulnerabilities, their trafficking experiences and their assistance experiences and needs, all of which is essential in english essay about surgery, informing policies and interventions to prevent and combat trafficking. However, there are certain biases in terms of the information that we get from impolicy african slave trade, trafficking victims who have been identified and assisted, which means that our picture of trafficking is only partial. That is, not all trafficked persons are offered (or accept) assistance and there are also differences in english essay about plastic surgery, terms of essays which trafficked persons researchers will have access to and why. Moreover, there is an implicit assumption that information from identified and assisted victims is the same as what we would learn from trafficking victims who are not identified and assisted. And yet the little research that has been done with unidentified or unassisted victims suggests systematic differences between the two groups.
Unidentified and unassisted. Identified victims are those who have been determined to be “trafficked” according to formal identification procedures involving designated authorities. Assisted trafficking victims are those who are identified as trafficked by relevant authorities and assisted within the english about plastic surgery, anti-trafficking framework or the more general social assistance system. Many trafficking victims are identified but not assisted – for example, they decline to be labelled “trafficked”, are unsatisfied with available assistance, do not wish to return home, do not trust service providers, do not need assistance or have other forms of support. Many others are never identified – for example, because of poor identification processes, limited capacity of on the of the trade anti-trafficking professionals, specific legal or administrative procedures, not understanding their experience as “trafficking” or because they avoid being identified. These two groups – identified but unassisted victims and unidentified trafficking victims – are generally of unknown sizes, boundaries and english surgery, nature. It is unclear the extent to which they are (and are not) represented by the experiences and characteristics of assisted victims, including how these experiences might fluctuate from place to place and over time. Factors which influence who does (and does not) come into the anti-trafficking framework are diverse and context specific. They include not only individual or family characteristics (e.g. attitudes to essay with, and knowledge of assistance, access to other forms of support, (not) needing assistance, (positive or negative) family relations and so on) but also social or cultural norms, policy or legislative frameworks, how programmes are designed and funded and political commitment to english about, anti-trafficking efforts within a country. Moreover, these factors may change over time and in response to various external factors such as the systhesis by, broader political environment, donor interest, funding and so on. Reaching the unreachable.
A more rounded and carefully derived picture of trafficking (and assistance needs) must include not only those who have been identified and assisted but also the unseen – those who have not been identified or assisted. Unidentified and unassisted trafficking victims can be accessed at different stages of english surgery their trafficking and post-trafficking lives – while they are still in a trafficking situation (that is, while still abroad or at home); upon return to the home country/community; after trafficking (that is, once they are back in their community and/or some time after their return). Determining the appropriate research method and approach to be used at each stage of trafficking/post trafficking will depend on the scope and nature of the research. Comparison Essays! But at all stages and with all methods there are challenges to be borne in mind, not least in terms of biases that influence the essay, data and the myriad ethical issues which arise. Moreover, these experiences are still sub-samples of trafficked persons and their stories must be fit and framed within the broader (and diverse) picture of human trafficking. Researching persons still in trafficking situations. Sampling currently trafficked persons – for example, those still on a labour worksite or in prostitution – is one means of accessing the “unidentified”. Movie Book Comparison! However, access to worksites and english essay surgery, prostitution arenas differ greatly from setting to setting and some sites of systhesis by exploitation (arguably the most exploitative ones) are largely inaccessible to researchers. Moreover, access is generally arranged through gatekeepers, which means that access (and the about plastic surgery, boundaries of the research sample) is informed by the mandate, work and relationships of these agencies or institutions as well as any motives they may have or perspectives they wish to argumentative essay cctv, advance – e.g. English Plastic Surgery! ideological perspectives of trafficking, positions on prostitution, a desire to highlight certain issues and so on. Essay Outline Thesis! Trafficked persons may also be limited in what they are able (or willing) to disclose while still trafficked, posing risks to respondents and researchers.
Others may not recognise that they have been trafficked. Finally, researchers have an ethical obligation to provide assistance and ultimately an exit strategy to trafficked persons with whom they are conducting research. Researching in the return process. Respondents may be accessed after trafficking ends but prior to or during their return home – for example, while detained, awaiting or following deportation, preparing to or testifying against traffickers or following deportation. Gatekeepers at these stages might include prison officials, immigration authorities, law enforcement and/or lawyers. English About Surgery! However, such settings (as well as the stress and argumentative essay cctv, anxiety generally experienced in the period after exit from trafficking) are not necessarily conducive to full and comfortable disclosure. Moreover, some respondents may not feel able to decline to english about plastic surgery, be interviewed or may hope that participation will lead to a more positive outcome – for example, some assistance or reprieve in the deportation process. Here too there are ethical obligations for researchers in essay outline with, terms of providing information about assistance options abroad and/or at home.
Researching after trafficking. Accessing unidentified and unassisted respondents in their homes and communities (including after some period of time) can be complicated, particularly in terms of how it can (negatively) influence relations with family and community. English Essay About! There is, for in past tense, example, the risk of “outing” people as trafficked to their families and communities, which can have serious implications in situations where discrimination and stigma of trafficked persons is commonplace. This type of sampling may be more viable in others settings (for example, where stigma related to prostitution is english essay surgery, less and ? or socially manageable) or for argumentative essay, other forms of trafficking (for example, less stigmatised forms of exploitation like labour). However, the extent to which victims (of different forms of trafficking and in different contexts) may suffer (different forms of) stigma or discrimination has not been extensively studied and caution is therefore needed. Even if we are able to english essay, find and ethically access unidentified and essay on the of the trade, unassisted trafficking victims at this post-return stage, it remains an open question as to what extent these trafficked persons will divulge their exploitation experiences to (unknown) researchers. Disclosure will be impacted when there may be implications for essay about, divulging – for example, retribution from traffickers, fear of stigma, being forced to testify, fear that their story will be made public and so on.
Equally, disclosure may increase when there are (at least perceived) benefits to divulging – for example, payment for participation, referral for services, helping others from suffering in the future and a chance to talk about their difficult experience. Book Comparison Essays! There are additional layers of complication (and ethical considerations) when accessing persons who have proactively avoided identification and assistance. Why research with unidentified and plastic surgery, unassisted victims matters. Understanding trafficking through the lens of unidentified and unassisted trafficked persons often provides a different picture than is commonly presented in trafficking research and on the impolicy of the slave trade, discourse. This generally means including less considered profiles of victims (for example, men and boys, the elderly, older women), other forms of exploitation (for example, different forms of forced labour, forced marriage, begging) and a wide range of assistance and protection needs. It also potentially calls into english surgery, question some assumptions about trafficking and trafficking risk, which, in turn, will mean reconsidering how some assistance is designed and offered. Interventions designed for identified and assisted victims will not necessarily respond to essays, the needs of about plastic surgery other (and all other) trafficked persons. This is should in past, of particular concern given that many (and arguably very many) trafficked persons are never identified and/or assisted.
Expanding research to include these under-considered trafficked persons is vital if policies and programmes are to respond to the needs of both visible and less visible trafficking victims. Moving beyond the heavy reliance on english essay plastic research solely with assisted victims has real life implications for unidentified and essay, unassisted trafficked persons and english about plastic, their families. Their stories and experiences and needs must be part of essays our understanding of, and response to, the english about surgery, issue. They can translate into a more well-rounded anti-trafficking response in identifying the types of programmes and policies that this group of trafficked persons needs and wants as well as more targeted (and appropriate) prevention efforts.
Academic Proofreading -
Short Essay on Plastic Surgery (501 …
40 Presentation Software #038; Powerpoint Alternatives For 2017. NOTE: This is essay a list of 36 different presentation software tools. You#8217;re looking for paragraphs only Free Presentation Programs, view our post on 9 Free Presentation Tools you can start using today. Great for educators and students. If you are truly serious about purchasing new presentation software and need some guidance, you should view our buying guide to presentation software. At CustomShow, we like to english essay about plastic surgery think that everyone can use our presentation software to systhesis by create better looking presentations, thus serving as a great powerpoint alternative to people.
But that won#8217;t always be the about surgery case. Essay Of The African Trade. We cater to essay about plastic businesses greater than 10 employees and organizations that need an book comparison all-in-one presentation program. We also don#8217;t usually promote our competitors. Shout out to ClearSlide on that one. But at the end of the day, we want you to plastic surgery have a pick from the full list of presentation tools that are on an essay be written or present, the market and that could fit your needs.
Powerpoint alternatives are great, but we know there are plenty of options to choose from. Some have their advantages and disadvantages while others are perfect for a certain audience. We’ll examine the presentation maker programs we believe would be great and even the ones that may not be but could still be another viable solution. CustomShow Business Presentation Software. Summary presentation software program used mainly for essay about surgery businesses and companies with more than 25 employees. With over essays paragraphs, 40 years of rich presentation history, the essay plastic surgery software company was created out of the presentation design agency, Sales Graphics. The software allows companies and organizations to build better custom branded presentations that look light years better than your typical powerpoint presentation.
We would consider ourselves a great sales enablement tool because sales professionals benefit a great deal from the software. Perfect For Marketing Teams, Sales Teams, Sales Professionals, Marketing. Professionals, CEO#8217;s, Design Agencies. Summary Clearslide purchased Sliderocket several years ago. If volume sales is in past important to you, Clearslide could be a good tool for you. There is more emphasis on the sales and tracking than the presentation creation side of the software.
After going through a series C $50 million round of funding, the english essay surgery company is focusing more on sales enablement more broadly and essay outline less on english about surgery, presentations specifically. Nonetheless, the tool is worth reviewing. Movie Book Comparison. Advantages Can upload files from Keynote, Powerpoint, PDF, Excel and other formats; good metrics; online delivery; slide sharing. Disadvantages Interface is complex and limited in the ability to essay about surgery create #8220;better looking presentation#8221;; video isn#8217;t seamlessly integrated into presentations. Perfect For High Volume Sales Marketing Organizations. Summary The mothership of powerpoint alternatives, they#8217;ve been around for essay cctv many years. English About Plastic. Leveraging the concept of ZOOM and transitions to new spaces on a slide, they give the effect that the presentation has not moved to a new slide.
Prezi provides people with creating better style and should be written or present effect in their presentations. Prezi uses the concept of Pathway Points instead of slides to give the english essay visual cinematic appeal of their presentations. Argumentative. These guys just raised another $50 million in November in order to compete with Microsoft. Advantages Present on multiple devices; can share with coworkers; can be used by practically anyone; easy to learn how to use; cost effective; can work on essay about, the presentation offline; Disadvantages Very template driven always looks like Prezi; cannot easily customize slides or repurpose presentations; can cause motion sickness. Perfect For Educators; Keynote Speakers; Organizations; Students. Paragraphs. Summary The mothership of english essay plastic surgery powerpoint alternatives, they#8217;ve been around for many years. They decided to make a stronger push for the business market. Thus, they came out should an essay tense, with Prezi for Business. Lots of companies already use Prezi for one-off presentations like conference keynotes, town halls and investor pitches, but this version is trying to target the managed and repeatable presentations of sales and marketing teams. Advantages Better for teams; good for english about surgery collaborating. Disadvantages Very template driven always looks like Prezi; hard to edit by systhesis by, non-designers; not easy to repurpose content.
Perfect For Medium-sized companies that require limited customization by the sales team. Summary Taken directly from the horse#8217;s mouth, SlideShark is an app used by sales professionals and english about plastic other presenters worldwide to systhesis by present and essay plastic surgery share PowerPoints via their chosen devices. It#8217;s features include cloud storage integration, sharing and tracking views, broadcasting or presenting over the web, creating annotations on the slides, and of course presenter mode. Advantages Can present powerpoint slides anywhere; cloud-based; free but paid version is essay known as Business pro; can be utilized for webinars. Plastic Surgery. Disadvantages unable to customize presentations; primarily a delivery system (good and bad thing). Perfect For sales and marketing professionals; individual business owners. Summary The presentation software is a template-based platform that allows for essay cctv people to create elegant looking presentations. The software comes with 35 many templates and over 35 million stock photos that can be used within the slide templates.
This platform is a step between a company like CustomShow and Powerpoint. Advantages easy to use; fast onboarding process. Disadvantages cannot do offline work with the App; cannot truly Customize presentations anyway you want. Perfect For students; educators; presenters in general. Summary Known as a presentation launch pad, SlideDog mainly takes all of your documents, presentations, pictures, or video and places them into english about, a play list that can be moved around and presented in a seamless way. You can upload just about any type of essays file from videos down to other presentation software devices such as Prezi. English About Plastic Surgery. Advantages Make transitioning smooth; can share across multiple devices; live polling; free version. Disadvantages Not used for creating presentations. Perfect For People who want to present more seamlessly across multiple documents; individual presenters. Powtoon Animation Presentation Software.
Summary Probably one of the leaders in the DIY presentation animation space, Powtoon allows consumers to essay african trade create presentations and videos that are animated, interesting, and engaging. It is not difficult to learn how to use and the software is a breath of fresh air to those looking to create presentations that are different and engaging. Advantages Ease Of Use; Truly Customizable Animated Presentations. Disadvantages Not suitable to surgery live presentations (but that#8217;s OK) Perfect For Educators (Check out their new app for educators); businesses that want to create a service/product video; small business professionals; trainers. Essay Cctv. Summary One of the standard bearers in the presentation software space, Keynote is meant to allow presenters to create customizable presentations. It comes with 30 themes that you can start with and pre stock photos. Advantages Present on about plastic, multiple devices (Apple owned); easy to share; powerpoint friendly; inexpensive ; allows for animations.
Disadvantages Can only be used for MAC (ios systems); fairly template driven; no slide library. Perfect For Business owners and an essay be written in past or present individuals. Summary To switch things up a bit MediaShout is a presentation software tool for english plastic religious institutions and churches. It is book essays a powerful platform that can be utilized by essay plastic, churches of all size and comparison essays combines. The software works well with the team that is managing the english essay about media and productions during any religious service but particularly during the sermon.
Advantages Stage mirroring; announcement deck; great with video; add scripture from 65 different bibles; include sermon points; sound and music enabled. Should An Essay Be Written In Past. Perfect For Religious institutions and churches. Summary Built mainly for B2B sales people, Kineticast is a cool presentation tool that enables sales people to be more effective in their sales and essay surgery marketing. Argumentative. Their process includes creating the presentation (uploading files), emailing to your list of contacts, and then tracking the results. The purpose of this tool is to english essay about surgery create customized messages with slides that are meant for specific prospects. Advantages Enables sales professionals to improve effectiveness.
Disadvantages Cannot create customized presentations (wasn#8217;t built for that anyway though). Perfect For B2B Sales Professionals; Possibly Marketers. Summary Knowledge Vision is argumentative cctv one of the newest players on the block when it comes to creating better looking presentations that are customizable. The company has a collection of software tools that are combined into 1 that companies can use. You can also create videos within the software package. Advantages Complete Package of plastic Production Tools; Cloud-Based; Analytics; Live Webcasting. Disadvantages Maybe ooo many tools; Could be challenging to learn. Perfect For Business; Producers; Digital Agencies. Essays Paragraphs. Visme allows you to english essay about surgery make professional presentations infographics online.
The tools is actually relatively easy to should an essay be written in past use and comes with 1000#8217;s of templates graphics. It#8217;s a relatively new software and is geared more toward infographics rather than presentations, but nonetheless it#8217;s a great tool. GoAnimate Video Presentation Software. Summary One of english essay about surgery Powtoon#8217;s biggest competitors, GoAnimate is systhesis by all about animated video presentations. You can create DIY professional animated videos without having to english about plastic surgery hire a video producer. It integrated with other software sales apps and is a solution that can be interesting for the budget busting video animation companies. Of course there are other whiteboard animation companies, but GoAnimate does showcase another alternative. On The Impolicy Of The African Slave Trade. Advantages Great For Video; Cost Effective; Think Product Videos. Disadvantages Only Video Centered (Not a real disadvantage though) Perfect For Business; Producers; Digital Agencies. Summary – Wink is a Tutorial and Presentation creation software, primarily aimed at essay creating tutorials on how to use software (like a tutor for on the african MS-Word/Excel etc). Using Wink you can capture screenshots, add explanations boxes, buttons, titles etc and generate a highly effective tutorial for english essay surgery your users.
Disadvantages No #8216;undo#8217; feature, audio compatibility issues. Perfect For Individuals and small businesses who just need to create simple animated tutorials and movie comparison essays software demonstrations. Summary Offers advanced features and extra tools for organizing, simplifying, and about plastic editing screen captures. If you produce Windows screen shots on a regular basis, SnagIt is a great tool for argumentative cctv that. Advantages Easy-to-use screen capture program, Summary Camtasia Studio is an integrated suite of applications for producing professional videos of essay about plastic on-screen activity. Advantages 5 applications provide solutions for end to end video production, multiple output options. Disadvantages Costly for the value; for windows only.
Perfect For Creating Video demonstrations for should be written in past or present tense customer support, employee training, and product presentations. Camstudio Video Presentation Software. Summary Free and simple, straightforward program to record screen activity to AVI or SWF format. English Essay Plastic Surgery. Disadvantages no movie editing, hard to use annotation tools. Should Or Present Tense. Perfect For Recording basic activity for webinars and basic presentations. Essay About Plastic. Summary Mainly used for sharing presentation and not necessarily building presentations, Sldiesnack can still be an effective tools for people. Disadvantages not great for building presentations. Systhesis By. Perfect For great for teams and collaborating. Summary Articulate Presenter is essay plastic a program that acts as an add-on to Microsoft PowerPoint. It capitalizes on what PowerPoint can do already, and provides several added features, such as quizzing, narration, and should an essay in past other interactive features. Essay About Surgery. Advantages Supercharges the existing functionality in PowerPoint; narration syncs easily to screen animation; functionality is super intuitive.
Disadvantages Content positioning is imprecise, takes ages to publish the essay with thesis content, Published files are BIG. Summary freeware video editing software by Microsoft. It is about a part of Windows Essentials software suite and offers the ability to create and edit videos as well as to publish them on OneDrive, Facebook, YouTube, and Flickr. Advantages – Free, simple to essay with thesis use for beginners, great for photo slideshows. Disadvantages – Only one video track, freezes and crashes randomly, lots of versions that aren’t compatible with each other. Perfect For Essentially Anyone; Video Production. Summary Allows easy sharing of english essay presentations between businesses and consumers. Advantages Easy embedding in websites, great for sharing audio and video, custom privacy settings. Book Comparison. Disadvantages Must use other programs to create and edit material, atypical transitions, cannot track views. Perfect For Students, teachers, small and large businesses that want public-facing content to reach consumers.
Other Sources Tanya Lewis of PR Week US. Summary Automatic graphic designer for PowerPoint’s presentations that designs a Showcase automatically with just some clicks. Advantages Easy to Use, Fast, User Friendly UI, Attractive Templates. Disadvantages Getting appropriate images requires some selection by hand. Some features redundant to plastic surgery PowerPoint#8217;s own. Summary Projeqt gives creatives the ability to weave together stories dripping with style and essay outline personality from Flickr photos, RSS feeds, tweets, YouTube or Vimeo videos, and any media stored on your own computer.
Advantages freemium model, create professional-looking, branded, shareable, and about embeddful presentations without much fuss. Summary The Emaze user can easily build sophisticated presentations with little effort. Movie Book Comparison. The company’s vision was to surgery free up users from having to spend time studying and preparing the presentation tool, so that they can better spend their time concentrating on the actual content of the presentation. Advantages – Cheap, designed for ordinary users, Disadvantages Will not work smoothly on older computers with low computing power. Perfect For Basic user base, current PowerPoint users wanting better visualization. Impress is a truly outstanding tool for creating effective multimedia presentations. Creating and editing slides is very versatile thanks to different editing and view modes: Normal (for general editing), Outline (for organizing and outlining your text content), Notes (for viewing and editing the notes attached to a slide), Handout (for producing paper-based material), and Slide Sorter (for a thumbnail sheet view that lets you quickly locate and book comparison essays order your slides). Summary Now we#8217;re in the world of conferences.
Preseria is all about essay plastic presenters uploading their presentations and organizing your conferences. This can be a nifty tool if you#8217;re managing large conferences where you have several presenters. Advantages Great for Sharing; can Organize and movie comparison essays gather content seamlessly. Perfect For Event Coordinators; Conference Leaders. Proclaim Church Presentation Software.
Summary Now we#8217;re in the world of churches. Proclaim is all about essay about plastic surgery pastors and assistants uploading their presentations and having the essays paragraphs functionality to make many changes to it in order to provide a experience to people listening and watching the english about plastic surgery sermon. Advantages Incredible software for sharing and collaborating with teams of people who are working on should in past or present tense, the presentation; Organize and gather content seamlessly; Comes with a remote app that can be controlled by your ipad. English Essay About Surgery. Disadvantages Can#8217;t create super customized presentations, but they can be fairly unique. Perfect For Churches; religious institutions.
Summary Moving back into animation, this software is pretty nifty. You can create animated figures for your presentation in a shorter period of time. Great for should an essay be written presenters to quickly add animated avatars and comic effects into PowerPoint, Keynote, Google Doc and other presentation software. Surgery. Advantages Full editing capabilities; well categorized content libraries; added to other presentations. Disadvantages Can#8217;t create presentations within the software, however Reallusion does have other software in its suite that can do this.
Perfect For Individuals; Business; Keynote Speakers; Designers. Summary Focusky helps mainly with creating animation presentations as well as presentations in HTML5 format. With Thesis. Advantages Full editing capabilities; can present from anywhere; animation capabilities; import powerpoint slides. Disadvantages May not have as much functionality as CustomShow but is great for essay about plastic individuals; mainly for animation, not traditional presentations. Perfect For Individuals; students; teachers. Summary To finish off the list, slides.com is a cloud based presentation software that allows for cctv easy collaboration, Advantages Full editing capabilities; can present from anywhere; cloud based; comes with analytics; incorporate html and css in english about plastic surgery the presentations. Disadvantages May not have as much functionality as CustomShow but is great for individuals. Perfect For Individuals; students; teachers. Summary A new kid on the block, Slidebean has a dynamic means of creating slides for systhesis by presentation givers. English Essay Surgery. Their thing is that they have slides that design themselves. You add the content, and the slides create themselves.
Advantages Ease of use; quick to develop presentations; plenty of essay on the african slave trade templates to choose from. Disadvantages May not have as much functionality as CustomShow but is great for individuals; not best for teams; not entirely customizable. Perfect For Individuals; students; teachers. Canva seems to be a new kid on the block as a presentation software tool that is offered for english about free. Canva provides 100#8217;s of initial templates for users to choose from and have developed a simple process for people to essay impolicy of the slave walk through: Open Canva and select the “Presentation” design type Choose from hundreds of english surgery professionally designed layouts Upload your own photos or choose from over 1 million stock images Fix your images, add stunning filters and edit text Save and essays share. The way Canva monetizes its business is by way of its marketplace in which it sells templates, icons, and photos to people looking for even more advanced customization. Not for the B2B player, but can be great for B2C consumers. Zoho offers a great interface for people who want to design eye popping presentations. Zoho is pretty broad in its software and service offerings ranging from document management tools to collaboration and sharing.
Their pricing on the document management side can be as low as $5/month/user. Doesn#8217;t really compete in the B2B space, but nonetheless is a great player with many benefits including transferring to powerpoint, analytics, bulk file uploads, and much more. Docketzoom helps you bring to life highly interactive presentations that enhance buyer perception. With DocketZoom you can easily create appealing presentation that delights and engages your audience. Its inbuilt analytics helps you understand critical user insights to formulate better content strategies. Instant Magazine allow you to create interactive publications which make your content come alive. It is one tool, for about plastic all platforms, for should be written in past or present tense all devices.
Get the best reading experience on smartphone, tablet and desktop. Personalized and fully measurable. Instead of building presentations from scratch, users can compile pre-approved slides (individual or multiple) into a customized PowerPoint presentation that suits their needs. Users can construct presentations from a selection of approved slides and even add personalization and customization where allowed by site administrators. NCH Software allows you to easily design effective slideshow presentations with this free software. Present ideas and arguments to persuade an audience Free alternative for Microsoft® PowerPoint ** presentations Visually support speeches and oral presentations. English Essay About Plastic. Enhance any presentation with visuals and multimedia examples of the information, ideas and arguments you are presenting. At Panopto, the company believes that video can have a transformative effect on learning. So they built a video platform that helps businesses and universities improve the way that they train, teach, and share knowledge. Panapto acts as a video presentation software package that allows consumers to essays manage, live stream, record, and share videos across your organization. Genially is a helpful tool for creating visual media, such as presentations, infographics, mind maps, and plastic surgery more.
The focus with Genially is interactivity, and nearly everything created with this tool can include interactivity. It also includes real-time collaboration and animation. In addition, statistics help you measure whether your presentation is effective. FlowVella is argumentative essay another presentation app with several benefits and features including it being mobile first, offering privacy and plastic security, analytics, autoplay videos, and a vast array of systhesis by collaboration tools. FlowVella has native apps for Mac, iPhone iPad, yet presentations can be viewed via any web browser. FlowVella is great for english about plastic surgery for sales presentations, training, kiosks, digital brochures, portfolios, product guides, formal and informal education, and much more. Summary Slide Bureau is an interesting software device. It is mainly used for iPads, but it does allow for people to create presentations that are more customized than your traditional powerpoint slide. Movie Book Essays. The interface is essay about centered on pre-made templates but they are categorized to fit the profession and overall need of the slide. Advantages Easy to use this presentation platform. Disadvantages Limited to only iPads; cannot truly brand and create presentations more customized than the templates that are given.
Perfect For Educators; Individual Professionals. There are probably an additional 50 80 presentation software tools we missed on this list. We know there are others we likely left out, so we look forward to your comments and systhesis by other powerpoint alternatives that can be useful for english plastic surgery presenting or organizing/delivering presentations. If presentation ideas and design is an essay in past something else important to you, visit www.salesgraphics.com. And if you believe you are a good match and english about plastic should be added to this list, feel free to email us and we#8217;ll consider adding.
Thanks for reading.
Write My Paper -
Argumentative Essay 'Against …
essays by about surgery marx by Harold Laski. This work has been published at the expense of the Tulloch and essays paragraphs, Barr Publishing Fund, instituted as a Memorial of Lieut William Tulloch and Capt. Hugh Barr, M.B., R.A. M.C., two members of the Fabian Society who lost their lives in the Great War. No name in the history of social ideas occupies a place more remarkable than that of Karl Marx. About Plastic! Save Machiavelli and Rousseau, no thinker has been the subject of a condemnation so unsparing, and, like Rousseau, it has been his fortune to preside after death over a revolution conceived in his name. His books have received from a chosen band a scrutiny as earnest as ever the Bible or the Digest have obtained. Yet the precise grounds of the position he occupies among Socialists is a more complex problem than is usually assumed. His theory of value is no more than a formidable adaptation of a concept already worked out in full by a group of English predecessors. Men like Harrington and cctv, James Madison realized, hardly less clearly than he, the significance of the materialist interpretation of history.
His appreciation of the fact of class antagonism had been anticipated in detail by Saint-Simon. Essay! Even his passionate sympathy with the inarticulate aspirations of the worldling class was no more profound than that of Charles Nail and Owen and John Stuart Mill. His position, indeed, cannot be appreciated unless it is seen in its historical perspective. Born between too revolutions, he utilized the method produced by the reaction from the excesses of France to the service of its fundamental principles. The disciple of Hegel, he was the first of those who felt his master's influence to argumentative essay, apply his dialectic to about plastic, the analysis of social facts. Hardly less important was the material of which he made use. Beginning to an essay tense, write when the full implications of english about surgery, capitalism were becoming visible, he utilized its own description of its economic consequences as the proof of its moral inadequacy.
The evidence was impressive and complete; and the induction therefrom of essay on the slave trade, a social order at once new and inevitable, suited to a nicety the yearnings of his generation. The main result of the Hegelian movement was to english essay, lend a new sanction to philosophic conservatism. The impact of the revolutionary wars seems to have turned the mind of its founder towards the justification of established order. In that sense, Hegel is a chief of reactionary romanticism, and his affinity to men like Burke and Savigny is obvious. Yet the essence of Hegelianism is, at the same time, the idea of evolution, and, to an age which, as with de Maistre, was chiefly concerned with finding the basis of a permanent social scheme the notion of evolution was a definitely radical one. Of The African Slave! For Hegel insists on the impermanence of institutions. Each age is essay surgery, its predecessor with a difference.
There is be written in past, a change of tone and outlook, a tendency to emphasize the english essay plastic surgery antithesis of what has been characteristic of the earlier period. To the period of religious intensity there succeeds the age of religious indifference; Bossuet begets Voltaire, as Lord Eldon implies the reforming zeal of Henry Brougham. The law of systhesis by, life is the warring of contradictions, with growth as its consequence. This process, which Hegel called dialectic, is, as it were, a kind of rhythm which moves from the concrete hardness of some definite idea to its opposite; from that repulsion it shifts towards a synthesis in which the two first stages interpenetrate each other to form a new concept by their union. This notion is the ruling method of Marxian thought. Obviously enough, it provides a means whereby the foundations of any given social system may be criticized at their base.
For if we can be certain that any interpretation of a period is plastic, necessarily a partial view, we have only to emphasize its antithesis to call forth the possibility of a new standpoint. Hegelianism, for example, might insist on the moral adequacy of the Prussian State. But under its very banner, Young Germany might make protest against its rigorous impermeability to freedom. Where Hegelian doctrine had emphasized birth and position, Young Germany could point to outline, the frustration of talent and english essay about surgery, the tragedies of the systhesis by poor. Where it insisted on the value of religion, the newer thinkers might question the very foundations of faith. The disciples of Hegel, in fact, turned the weapons of their master to the service of a cause he had denied.
Strauss and Feuerbach, Bruno Bauer and Heine are essentially a part of the same general tendency of which Marx is the representative in social ideas. They are the heralds of english essay about, revolt against the reaction. Their difference from Marx consists in their failure to see the political implications of their position. Marx grasped: them from the outset; and the Hegelian dialectic in his hands is an effort at cctv the overthrow of the existing social order. The time, indeed, was singularly fitted for the ideas of which he was the protagonist. English Surgery! The shadow of two French Revolutions bestrode Europe like a colossus; and the very reaction they had provoked was compelled to make grudging concessions to ensure even its temporary survival. The mood of the people was everywhere bitter and discontented; and the criticism of existing institutions secured a widespread and systhesis by, eager welcome. English About Surgery! In France, the work of Saint-Simon and Fourier and Enfantin had shown how prolific of novelty the essay thesis revolution remained; and its influence was hardly less apparent in the new liberalism of Sismondi and the Catholic experiments of Lamennais. England was in the throes of a convulsion not the less profound because it was silent. Bentham had at last come into his own; and, under the stress of english essay plastic, his urgent protests English institutions were being transformed into the organs of a middle-class state. The relics of essays, feudalism had at last submitted to english about plastic, the assaults of Ricardo and his school; and the newborn industrialism, even if, to an observant eye, it seemed but the grim doctrines of Calvin translated to an economic sphere, completely altered the atmosphere of social life.
The revolution, indeed, did not achieve its purpose without suffering As early as 1805, Charles Hall had uttered a remarkable protest against comparison, the implications of the new civilization and that half-forgotten school of english essay about plastic, economists who form a link between the individualism of Bentham and essay, the co-operation of Owen, were riddling its protective armour in the name of social justice. The masses had regarded the Reform Act of 1832 as the prelude to the greatest happiness of the greatest number; and their disappointment expressed itself in the revolutionary activity of the trade unions and the formation of the Chartist movement. English Essay Plastic Surgery! Thinkers like William Thompson and J. F. Bray, noble-minded agitators like Francis Place and William Lovett, are every whit as indicative of the new capitalism as the great merchants and the incredible machines of Lancashire and outline, Yorkshire. The Industrial Revolution reaped what it had sown. It ground a whole generation into english about surgery, intolerable despair, and dreams of its destruction were the sole refuge of its victims. Those dreams were the background which made possible the emergence of Karl Marx. Argumentative Cctv! They gave him the english plastic surgery foundation of his social philosophy. Karl Marx was born at Treves on May 5th, 1818, of Jewish parents who were descended on both sides from rabbinic ancestors.
Neither his father, who was a lawyer, nor his mother seems to have had any special ability; and Marx himself was the essays paragraphs only one of several children who attained intellectual distinction. When he was six years old, the family was converted to Christianity, not, it appears, from any desire to avoid the english essay about plastic surgery stigma then attached to the Jewish faith, but as a result of that romantic idealizing of Christianity of which Chateaubriand was the most famous representative. It is not easy to measure exactly what influence this change had upon Marx. If it later opened to him avenues that would otherwise have been closed, he never availed himself of them. To the end of his life he remained something of an anti-Semite; but this does not seem traceable to any emotion of apostasy. Marx's childhood was passed in the normal atmosphere of a patriotic lawyer's life. His father was a zealous Prussian, to movie, whom the defeat of Napoleon offered the opportunity, of which his son did not take advantage, of about, a lyrical hymn to Prussian victory. Essays! He went to the grammar school of english essay plastic surgery, his native town, where his ability was immediately marked by his teachers. There too, he was. intimate with the Privy Councillor, von Westphalen, whose house was a kind of salon for the intellectual youth of Treves. At least Marx learned there a love of literature and book essays, the dedication of his doctor's thesis is testimony to english about plastic, his grateful regard for essay cctv, his future father-in-law. For even before his departure, in 1835, to Bonn University, he had become secretly engaged to about plastic, Jenny von Westphalen, whose beauty and systhesis by, strength of mind had awakened in him an affection which did not diminish through life.
Marx remained a year in Bonn, studying jurisprudence; but he seems to have devoted himself to the more convivial side of the University, and it was not until his removal to Berlin, in 1836, that he threw himself into intellectual work.. Berlin was then at the very height of its reputation; and the influence of Hegel was still paramount in its instruction. No sort of learning seems to have come amiss to Marx. History and philosophy geography and jurisprudence, literature and Aesthetic, all of them aroused in english about, him the typical enthusiasm of an undergraduate in essay, search of omniscience. Nor--it is a grateful thought--did he fail to write poetry; and if his verses are a fair index to his state of english about plastic surgery, mind, he was full of a restless insatiability for knowledge, and a zealous desire to solve the essay on the trade problems of the universe, from which at least there must have been derived many hours of happy work. He tried his hand at composing philosophic systems. He attempted to compile an outline of jurisprudence.
He went hardly at all into society, and it was not until the winter of 1837 that his experiments resolved themselves into a settled system. He surrendered the neo-idealism of Kant and took refuge in a complete acceptance of Hegelian metaphysic. That this change represented for english, him a very real mental crisis is evident from the passionate, if turgid, letter to his father of November 10th, 1837. There he summarizes the intense struggle through which he had passed, the desire to dive into the deeps of the ocean . . . bringing up chaste pearls into the sunlight. He was ill and troubled. His poems and short stories were burned; he sought escape from the seductions of Hegel in discussion at essay on the impolicy the Graduates' Club, only to find himself the more securely enmeshed therein. It is the typical intellectual history of an ardent mind, conscious of english about surgery, great powers, and eager to secure a foothold from which to survey the comparison universe.
Not unnaturally, it greatly disturbed his father. He, good man, was anxious above all to see Karl at work in a lawyer's office, or, even better, in Government service. Why did he not do as other students, attend his lectures, meet the right people, and embark upon his future career? He did not understand this mental torment save to see that it involved physical ill-health and a good deal of english about, miscellaneous reading totally unconnected with the should an essay be written or present tense law. But Marx's ideals had already passed beyond so pedestrian an existence; and his father seems to have reconciled himself to the new ambitions. Marx determined upon a University post, and for that purpose devoted himself to the study of philosophic jurisprudence. With friends like Bruno Bauer and Friedrich Koppen, he buried himself in study and discussion. A thesis was written on the philosophical systems of Democritus and Epicurus, and in 1841 Marx became a doctor of the University of english about, Jena. He rejoined Bauer at Bonn and awaited the offer of a lectureship in the University. Had that offer come, the history of European Socialism might have been very different. But the Prussian educational system did not look with affection upon eager young men whose views did not square with orthodox teaching.
The post did not arrive, and it was shortly enough obvious that it was not likely to arrive. An academic career being thus impossible, Marx set to work to find a living in journalism, and in 1842 an opportunity of an attractive kind presented itself. The first number of the Rheinische Zeitung was published on January 1st, 1842, and Marx was a warm friend of the essay on the impolicy of the african slave editor, who had met him at the Graduates' Club in Berlin. Invited to assist, he wrote philosophical articles which not only brought him to the notice of a wider circle, among whom were men like Feuerbach and Moses Hess, but also secured for him the direction of the journal on the retirement of its first editor in the next October. Thereby Marx was compelled to deal, and for the first time, with immediate political issues. He came into contact with French and essay about plastic surgery, German Socialism, then in their Utopian stage.
The agrarian problem in the Rhine provinces and the discussion of the tariff, gave him the first stimulus to investigate economic questions. French socialist ideas were already being discussed in the paper, but Marx, as always, determined upon a thorough grasp of the issue, did not as yet pronounce upon essay, their worth. An editor who takes time to make up his mind is obviously lost; and english essay, the directors of the paper decided to make a change in its management. On The Slave! Marx, who had just married, seems to have resigned without regret, and to have buried himself for the next two years in english essay about, those economic studies from which he emerged a Socialist. Of the inner history of those years we know practically nothing. Paragraphs! Certain alone it is that as early as May, 1843, he detected within society a breach which the old system cannot heal; and it was not long before he showed in plastic, his letters an intimate knowledge of essay, Fourier, Proudhon and Cabet.
Already he had done with Utopias; the problem was to explain the struggles and yearnings of the time. In the winter of 1843, when he had settled with his wife in Paris, he wrote the introduction to Hegel's Philosophy of Law, which remains, perhaps, his profoundest piece of technical criticism. Already he was thinking in terms of essay about plastic surgery, revolution, and insisting that the task of the proletariat was to free itself from the existing social order. Essay With! Poverty he viewed, thus early, as the essay plastic artificial product of a bourgeois society; and the denial of the should be written or present right to private property had become for him the english about plastic fundamental avenue of release. But we catch glimpses only of this time. All that can be said with certainty is the fact that reflection had made him a Socialist. He had realized, too, the essays inadequacies of the abstract remoteness of French Socialism.
He had seen that the political state was, at any given time, the reflection in structure of the ideas of that epoch. He had realized that the main need was to make plain to the mass of men the implications of the state, and the end to which their half-conscious struggle should lead them. His thought, indeed, was abstract enough, and still fettered within the narrowly walls of the Hegelian dialectic. But at least it was moving forward. Meanwhile, the problem of how to live had still to be solved. He had gone to Paris in October, 1843, to become editor of the english plastic surgery Franco-German Year Books . But that periodical lasted only for a single issue, and, for Marx, its chief importance was the appearance therein of a long and frankly, bad article by Friedrich Engels on political economy. The article led to should an essay in past tense, correspondence between them, and in the autumn of 1844, Engels went to Paris to visit Marx. That visit was the commencement of a friendship which even death did not terminate. Friedrich Engels was the english essay about plastic son of a rich manufacturer in the Rhineland. His father owned a cotton mill near Manchester, to which, in 1842, Engels had been sent to systhesis by, study English business conditions.
He was already an eager critic of social conditions, and how carefully he observed the life about english surgery him, his Condition of the Working Classes in England in 1844, which he published in 1845, bears witness. A sympathizer with the Chartist Movement, and a contributor to Owen's New Moral World , he was exactly in the frame of mind to be receptive to Marx's ideas. Essay! And his personal qualities admirably fitted him to be the complement of Marx. Thoroughly loyal, without an atom of personal ambition, generous, and self-effacing, practical and energetic, he brought to Marx all the necessary characteristics of a Fidus Achates. His unstinting literary assistance hardly less than his constant financial aid were the materials which determined Marx's future career. It is, indeed, almost impossible to disentangle the labours of the two. Clearly enough, it was to Engels that Marx owed both his knowledge of English blue-books as a source of economic theory, and his introduction to the work of the English socialist school. English Plastic! Without Engels, too, it would have been difficult for Marx to undertake the research to which the first volume of the Capital bears witness; and the posthumous publication of the two latter volumes was the tribute that Engels paid to argumentative essay, the memory of his master. English Essay About Plastic Surgery! That Marx would have been an important figure without Engels is clear enough; but the be written aid rendered by the latter made all the difference between the comparative calm of London and english essay plastic surgery, the restless wanderings of which hapless exiles like Bakunin were the miserable victims.
The sudden end of the Franco-German Year Books made Marx turn to more solid production. Essays! The Holy Family (1845) is important, not only because it contains the first clear outline of the materialistic conception of history, but also because its attack on Bruno Bauer is evidence that Marx had already broken with the young Hegelians. He had come to place all his faith in the significance of mass-movements. where Bauer believed that the ideas by which mankind is moved cannot hope for english essay plastic surgery, more than superficial understanding from the mass and depend for their success upon the efforts of great men. Simultaneously, also, he was answering Ruge's attacks upon the German proletariat with an impassioned defcnce of impolicy of the african slave, socialism and revolution. Weitling is held up as proof of proletarian virtue against the mediocrity of the political literature of the German bourgeoisie. And in the polemic against Ruge it is insisted that the time for political revolution, the only revolution of which the German bourgeoisie is capable, had passed; the capacity of Geimany is the capacity of its workers, and english about surgery, it is to a social revolution that Marx directs attention. This Paris period is important not only for the advent of Engels.
Mingling with the German workers then living in Paris, Marx naturally met those who were already in movie comparison essays, sympathy with his own views. Essay Surgery! From them to Proudhon was a natural step, for Proudhon was already the dominant socialist influence in France. Essays! Proudhon was interested in english about plastic, the Hegelian dialectic, and he and Marx spent countless hours in discussing its application to social science. But this fruitful intercourse was interrupted by his expulsion from France (January, 1845) at the demand of the Prussian Government. Should! Marx went from Paris to Brussels, where he remained, but for short intervals, until the outbreak of the revolution of 1848. Engels gave him a selection of english essay plastic surgery, his library and Marx devoted himself to the composition of his singularly able and unpleasant criticism of Proudhon.
This was published in 1847, and it may be said to mark his transition to the full vigour of his matured philosophy. Proudhon's reputation as a social philosopher has undergone an interesting reconstruction in our own day. (1) As an economist he has hardly survived the analysis of Marx. Essays! A self-taught man, originally a printer, he came into prominence by essay plastic surgery the publication, in 1840, of his prize essays What is Property ? in which, with much brilliance of thesis, style and english essay about, no small genius for paradox, he repeated in the economic sphere the substance of those criticisms of social organization which Rousseau had expressed in argumentative essay cctv, a prize essay not less famous. But Proudhon's aspirations were not limited by his knowledge. With undoubted ability and with a real gift of social insight, he yet lacked that rigorous training in the method of intellectual inquiry without which the production of a logical system is rarely possible. Discovering the work of Hegel, he attempted an english about surgery interpretation of social life in terms of the dialectic. It is, broadly, a mass of ill-arranged jargon with some brilliant asides. But the work was written while in contact with Marx, and the Philosophie de la Misère is the exposition of exactly that type of Utopia-mongering which aroused Marx's anger.
It depended for its success mainly upon the unconscious ease with which it determines the most complex economic problems, and the reckless certitude of its own conclusions. It is, indeed, at the same time, a very attractive book. Proudhon realized, not less keenly than Marx, the evils of capitalism, and he was not less anxious to point the way to an economic order of which the motives were freedom and justice. In the Du Principe Fédératif and the Justice dans la Revolution , indeed, he outlined a type of federalism of which the suggestiveness is immense; and it would be legitimate to argue that not the argumentative least significant source of the ancestry of Guild Socialism could be traced to his; writings. But the conflict between Marx and Proudhon was an inevitable one. At bottom, the ideals of Proudhon were those of a peasant socialism, in which the authority of a central state was reduced to a minimum; he was reformist in outlook, despite the vigour of his phrases, and english about plastic, his economic views were always subordinate to certain ethical assumptions. Marx was the typical representative of the new industrialism, and the source of change for him was solely to be traced to developments in essay on the, industrial technique.
Authoritarian and materialist in both outlook and english essay plastic, temper there was no real contact between Proudhon and himself. Marx, moreover, was a trained scholar, to whom the luxuriance of cctv, Proudhon's speculations was never an adequate substitute for fact. He was able without difficulty to essay plastic, show that Proudhon understood neither the theory of systhesis by, value nor the process of production. English Plastic Surgery! At bottom, as he insists, Proudhon had done little more than urge, first that labour was the source of movie book, value, and next that riches and poverty co-exist. English! Proudhon could see that the source of economic injustice lay somewhere within the essay of the system of production, but he could not, with any clarity, explain its development. Essay! Marx overwhelmed him with ridicule, abuse, and sarcasm, and on the african slave, it must be admitted that from the standpoint of an economist, right is on his side. And Marx's answer, the Poverty of Philosophy , is noteworthy also for its firm grasp of the economic processes of history and for his insistence upon the part that an oppressed class has always played in the development of any system founded upon class antagonism. Essay! But the should in past or present tense main value of the book consists less in any positive doctrine that it announces than in the atmosphere by which it is permeated. It is definitely revolutionary, and it is revolutionary because it is historical.
Its lesson is the argument that social evolution implies economic revolution. That was a new note to strike in the history of english plastic, European Socialism. The controversy with Proudhon was the natural prelude to the Communist Manifesto . It had been evident to movie book comparison essays, Marx, for several years before 1848, that Europe was on the verge of revolt. England was passing through a period of intense agitation. Socialism was growing in english about surgery, Germany by leaps and bounds; and the lyrical falsifications of essay cctv, Lamartine seemed to the Paris workmen infinitely preferable to english plastic surgery, the mediocre corruption of systhesis by, Guizot and Louis Philippe. Marx, indeed, did not see that the political situation was far too complex to admit of an interpretation in uniform terms. Democratic nationalism like that of essay about, Mazzini, individualist republicanism like that of Ledru-Rollin, such hostility to dynastic oppression as Kossuth embodied, state socialism as typified by Louis Blanc--the forces of upheaval were too various and incompatible to admit of any continuous co-operation. Bitterly as the worker might resent the consequences of industrialism he had not vet reached the stage where the seizure of political power for economic ends seemed to him the one ideal worthy of attainment.
And he was to argumentative cctv, no small degree, still attracted by the kind of unrealistic thinking of which Robert Owen was so prolific, the sense that the difficulties of the time might be evaded by extra-political organization. Marx realized that this attitude was definitely unconstructive. The seizure of the surgery State was to him the starting point of successful effort, and when Frederic William IV summoned the United Assembly in February, 1847, it was not unnatural for him to assume that the hour for action was at hand. From the outset of his life in Brussels Marx had mingled with the German socialist residents there. He had come into contact with the League of the Just, an organization of German workers with branches in the chief European towns. This society, founded in 1836, had in 1840 moved its headquarters to London, probably to escape the unwelcome attentions of the political police. The attention of the London group had been drawn to Marx by the members in Paris and Brussels. The London branch commissioned inquiries to be made about him, and when the first Congress of the League was held in London in essay impolicy of the african, the summer of 1847, Engels and english about plastic, Wilhelm Wolff, the latter, through Engels, a disciple of Marx, were present at its deliberations. Engels had spent the year in efforts at revolutionary propaganda in Paris and systhesis by, the Rhineland; and it is probably due, in the main, to him that the League of the Just was transformed into the Communist League. The ground was thus prepared for Marx, who appeared at the second Congress, also in London, in December, 1847.
Engels had already conferred with him as to the ground to be taken there; and he had sent Marx the outline of a programme to english about plastic surgery, be offered to the Congress for acceptance. Engel's outline contains the substance of the famous manifesto; but it lacks the ringing challenge and firm grasp of its successor. At the Congress, Marx and Engels were commissioned to movie essays, draw up a programme. They were prepared for the effort; and english plastic surgery, the German edition of the Communist Manifesto appeared a few days before the outbreak of the Paris revolution. It is not easy to over estimate the significance of the argumentative Manifesto. English Essay About Plastic! It gave direction and a philosophy to what had been before little more than an inchoate protest against injustice. It began the long process of welding together the scattered groups of the disinherited into an organized and influential party. It freed Socialism from its earlier situation of a doctrine cherished by conspirators in defiance of government and systhesis by, gave to it at once a purpose and english essay plastic surgery, an historic background.
It almost created a proletarian consciousness by giving, and for the first time, to the workers at outline once a high sense of their historic mission and a realization of the dignity implicit in their task. It destroyed at a stroke both the belief that Socialism could triumph without long preparation, and the hope that any form of economic organization was possible save that which was implicit in the facts of the time. It insisted upon no natural rights. It did not lay down any metaphysic. It was, on the contrary, a careful and plastic, critical historic survey of the essay of the trade institutional process regarded as a whole. To insist upon english essay, its epoch-mating character is not to regard it as an original or definitive document or to suggest that it is free from inconsistencies. Essay! It owes much, clearly, to Considerant's Manifeste de la Democratie which was published four years before. (2) There have been Utopian socialisms in english essay plastic surgery, despite of Marx; and we are doubtless not at the end of them. The belief in natural rights revives with every age of discontent, and it would be possible to prove that the idea of natural rights is necessarily implicit in the juridical structure of Socialism. Nor is its treatment of the middle class at all adequate. Impolicy African! At one point it is subject to a vituperation so scathing and relentless, as to make it seem the english about plastic surgery nurse of all social evil. At another its great historic achievements are exalted beyond all praise.
Its immediate programme of essay african, action is borrowed in almost every particular from those earlier Socialists who are so unsparingly condemned. Nor can Marx's claim that he substituted a critical insight into the facts, progress and about, general results of the actual social movement for the systems of his predecessors, be entirely accepted; for, after all, it is not the least merit of Fourier and Saint-Simon that they had described with not less sober accuracy than that of Marx the economic conditions of their time. Even the use of the book class-war as the key to history was brilliantly in the Genevan Letters of Saint-Simon. Yet the general superiority of the Manifesto to previous Socialist writing is incontestable. English Essay About Surgery! It contains, broadly speaking, four definite groups of ideas. Beginning with a history of the growth of the middle class it recounts its victory over feudal privilege, its emergence into the full development of capitalistic enterprise, and its necessary result in a revolutionary proletariat. A second section deals with the philosophic interpretation of this history.
It argues that the doctrine of the class struggle, the necessary and inevitable conflict between the bourgeoisie and the proletariat, with the consequent revolutionary role that is cctv, assigned to about plastic surgery, the latter, are the plain deductions to be drawn. Systhesis By! Ways and means are then discussed, the main object of which is to essay plastic surgery, bring within the ambit of state control the whole economic life of the people. There then follows a criticism of previous Socialist literature of which it must be said that, forcible and essay on the slave trade, eloquent as it is, much of english essay plastic, it is inaccurate and the whole unfair. No description can do justice to the brilliant vigour of the whole. Every phrase of it is a challenge, and much of it has the same moving passion that distinguishes the exordium of the Social Contract or, in a very different type of paragraphs, polemic, the Paroles d'un Croyant of Lamennais. It is the book of men who have viewed the whole process of history from an eminence and surgery, discovered therein an inescapable lesson. It is at once an epilogue and a prophecy--an epilogue to the deception from which the systhesis by workers suffered in the Revolution of 1789 and a prophecy of the land of promise they may still hope to english plastic, enter. A movement that could produce a challenge so profound came hardly less to fulfil than to destroy. It had hardly appeared before the Revolution broke out in Paris, and systhesis by, Marx, as a precautionary measure, was banished from Brussels by the Belgian Government. Essay Plastic Surgery! Tyranny has banished you, wrote the French Provisional Government, but a free France opens her gates to you. Marx proceeded to Paris, but remained there only a short time.
Germany was already seething with revolt, and the natural vantage-ground for him was obviously the Rhineland. Gathering about' trim the argumentative essay cctv members of the Communist League Marx went to Cologne where the english essay plastic surgery editorship of the revolutionary paper, the Neue Rheinische Zeitung , was entrusted to him. Paragraphs! Brief as was its life, its substance was not merely brilliant but of english essay about plastic, great significance as an indication of the Marxian tactic. Engels and Wilhelm Wolff were its chief contributors, and systhesis by, Freiligrath and Lassalle sent poems and essays. Mehring has published a selection of the chief articles of Marx in this paper. Dominantly, they insist upon three ideas: the disarming of the bourgeoisie, the erection of a revolutionary terror to abridge and concentrate the hideous death agonies of society, and the creation of a revolutionary army.
There is essay about plastic surgery, no room in Marx's thought, save perhaps as an ultimate, for any democratic system. Revolution opposes counter-revolution, and a reign of terror is the path to triumph. Liberty is dismissed as a purely bourgeois ideal, which impedes proletarian advance to its goal. On The Impolicy Of The Slave Trade! The idea of a general upheaval, Russia linking hands with France, Berlin uniting with Vienna, is emphasized, though it should be added that Marx had no full realization either of the difficulties the Revolution would encounter, or the speediness of essay plastic, its destruction. The paper hardly lived for a year, when troubles with the censorship put an end to its existence, Marx left Cologne and argumentative, returned to Paris, but only to plastic surgery, witness the bloody suppression of the days of June. Should An Essay Be Written In Past! Banished by the French Government in July, 1849, to a remote corner of Brittany, he decided to move to London. Thither he went with his family, and he remained in England, with one or two brief intervals, for about, the rest of his life. Marx's London period is, creatively, the most important part of his career; but it was a difficult and tragic struggle for existence, and his work was accomplished only by heroic effort. For the first ten years, the family was hardly over the verge of starvation, and Marx had even to pawn his clothes for necessary expenses. For was his intellectual environment easy.
The disappointed makers of a revolution are never comfortable neighbours; and his pamphlet, Herr Vogt (1860) is proof that German Communists did not differ from their fellows of France or Russia. ten years (1851-60) Marx acted as European correspondent of the New York Tribune , a post which was the sole source of essay trade, any continuous income. It was, however, very poorly paid, and plastic, if the selection of his articles therein published by Eleanor Marx after his death is at all representative, it is clear that the taste of the American reader has changed in remarkable fashion since the 'sixties. For Marx does not abate one iota of his convictions in his correspondence; and the manner of interpretation is that of the philosopher rather than the journalist. That income apart, Marx had no consistent means of livelihood during his first ten vears in London. Then came one or two family legacies, and essay thesis, a generous tribute from Wilhelm Wolff; later, Engels was able from his own means to english surgery, allow Marx some three hundred and fifty pounds a year.
Yet, with all their penury, these were not unhappy years. His wife seems to have had a real genius for deriving contentment from misfortune; judges like Heine and Paul Lafargue paid her the tribute of profound admiration. His children were growing up, and Marx was passionately fond of his children. Their nurse, Helene Demuth, was a source of infinite help and comfort, and there was always the sure knowledge of the impolicy african slave inevitable triumph of the revolutionary cause. For Marx did not share in the sense of depression which fell upon Liberals after the failure of 1848. He shut himself in the British Museum and, sometimes working sixteen hours a day, set himself to the composition of a socialist economics. One or two minor pamphlets were written, as the unsparing denunciation of the coup d'etat of 1851, which he called the essay Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte (1852) and the Critique of should in past or present, Political Economy (1859) which is important in part because it is the groundwork of the about plastic surgery Capital itself and in part because of the valuable light it throws upon his own conception of his method. But outside his relations with the international, it was to the Capital that these years were devoted.
And they were years of unremitting and essay on the, devoted service. He was at the Museum as it opened and never left until the attendants turned him out. A chosen band of helpers, all fellow-exiles, used to accompany him and aid in the researches he conducted; though it should perhaps be added that they were not admitted as assistants until they had shown their agreement with Marx and surgery, passed certain craniological tests. Essay On The Impolicy Of The Trade! Phrenology was not typical merely of the Utopian period of Socialism. Marx, moreover, never considered the exchange of conviction for english plastic surgery, comfort; offers of position came to him, as when Buchar sounded him, possibly on Bismarck's behalf; but he never dreamed of desertion. There is cctv, certainly no more remarkable instance of great sacrifice for intellectual discovery than that of which Marx's life is a record. Darwin, it is true, devoted twenty years to the testing of his hypotheses, but he had ample means at his command. Marx was surrounded by difficulties, of essay about, which not the least was the knowledge that his self-imposed task condemned his wife and family to profound suffering. Neither he nor they seemed to have flinched from the consequences, and one may judge not unfairly that their pride in essays, his work was for Marx his happiest achievement. Of Marx's intellectual environment in London, we know all too little.
Men like John Stuart Mill he never met, though he was on friendly terms with the leading trade unionists as Odger and Applegarth. About! With the essay of the african slave latter, however, he had no intimate political relations, and in the contemporary history of English labour, his name has no large place. That, perhaps, was natural enough; for English trade unionism was then a system of compromises with which Marx's revolutionary dogmas had little connection. For the english essay most part his affiliations were with Engels and systhesis by, the German exiles in London, though only the former seems to have enjoyed his full confidence. He had, moreover, a close relation-ship with that mysterious figure, half-fanatic and half-knight-errant, David Urquhart, whose loathing of Russia Marx seems fully to have shared. English About Plastic Surgery! Both of them saw spies at every street corner, and at systhesis by one time or another, in each case without a shadow of justification, Marx was able to convince himself that Herwegh and Bakunin were government emissaries.
It is, of about, course, sufficiently intelligible that an exile who had himself been the object of police attentions should live in an atmosphere of nervous suspicion; but it is a regrettable corollary of on the impolicy of the slave trade, Marx's accusations that both Herwegh and Bakunin belonged to different sections of the Socialist party. Marx never welcomed opposition or rivalry; and he Noms too prone to assume that a doubt of his rightness was a doubt also of his opponent's integrity. Yet it must be counted to plastic surgery, his great credit in these years that he is in no small degree responsible for the .svmpathy shown to the North by the working class during the American Civil War. It was Marx who advised the union of the labour leaders with Cobden and Bright to arouse the enthusiasm of the trade unions; and it was Marx who proposed in the General Council of the International, that a vote of congratulation be sent to Lincoln, on his re-election as President of the United States. Marx played some part also in cctv, arousing the trade unions to protest against the brutal suppression by Russia of the Polish revolt of 1863. But, apart from the plastic preparation of impolicy african slave trade, Capital , Marx's chief occupation in London was with the early stages of the First International. Essay Surgery! In 1862 a group of Paris workmen paid a visit to the London Exhibition of systhesis by, that year. A trade union committee received them and a joint international Council was founded.
When the Polish rebellion of english plastic, 1863 broke out, it was this Council which prepared the gigantic protest meetings against Russian barbarity which represented the essay outline with first intervention, failure though it was, of British labour in foreign politics. It was in connection with this campaign that Odger, a member of the Junta, suggested that the needs of the working class involved the holding of regular international meetings. The idea was taken up with enthusiasm and a great meeting was held in London in September, 1864, to organize the english about surgery movement. Marx, who had held rather aloof from the initial stages was present at the meeting, and joined the Founders' Committee that was created. He perceived at essays once the essay about plastic significance of the new movement, and though he seems to have had little but contempt for its leaders, he was appointed to draw up the an essay or present inaugural address. English Essay About Plastic! The Committee had given him a basis prepared by the French delegates and accepted by it as adequate. Marx, characteristically enough, destroyed the basis, and produced instead an address of his own detailing the essay on the impolicy african progress of the working class in England during the past thirty years, and insisting that its meaning must be read in essay about plastic, terms only of his own theories. It is, in fact, a new edition of the Communist Manifesto , with the revolutionary period of trade unionism as the basis of its deductions instead of universal history.
The special interest of the address, however, lies in Marx's use of the history of the Factory Acts as a proof of the value of working-class agitation. In the bright sunlight of essay, day, he said, the essay bourgeois political economy was here vanquished for the first time by the political economy of the working class. The Factory Acts were, indeed, revolutionary in the sense that they were a direct admission of the inadequacy of laissez-faire; but their passage was hardly due to the type of influence Marx had in mind. At least in other moods he would not have called Lord Shaftesbury a revolutionary Communist. Marx henceforward devoted much energy to the International, and should an essay or present, as he hurried it forth from essay about plastic its cradle, so he may be said to have hastened it towards the grave. Its origin began in dissension--the struggle between the idealist nationalism of Mazzini and essay, the revolutionary and class-conscious aggressiveness of Marx. On the latter's victory Mazzini withdrew, though with characteristic selflessness he advised his followers to continue their support. Marx henceforth dominated the organization, though he waged a continuous warfare to maintain his supremacy.
To him, the movement was essentially an effort to propagate the ideas of the Communist Manifesto and thus to prepare the way for the revolution. But to the English members the english plastic surgery International was essentially an organ for impolicy african trade, promoting trade unionism; and english about plastic, when Ogder perceived, in the Commune of 1871 and Marx's defence of it, the real drift of its purpose, he resigned from the argumentative organization. The English section always remained aloof from the directorate; for it was that special brand of Radicalism of which William Lovett was perhaps the finest representative that they were really concerned to foster. Nor was the English section the only difficulty. For the english about first two years, the followers of Proudhon were not able rivals, and they had no sympathy with Marx's idea of should be written or present tense, a direct and immediate political revolution.
They were, moreover, hostile to Communism; and racial differences played their part. Even when the Proudhonians had been defeated, Bakunin and his followers remained. They were anarchists and bitterly opposed to the centralized dictatorship of which Marx was the exponent; and about plastic surgery, there were grave differences between them on argumentative cctv the degree to which property was to be confiscated. Bakunin, it must be admitted, was as difficult as Marx himself in colleagueship. He founded a rival organization and did much intriguing against Marx when he was readmitted on its abandonment. By 1872 his influence had so increased that a frontal attack upon him was impossible. In the Hague Congress of that year, Marx therefore proposed the removal of the headquarters to New York.
The motion was carried; but it was obviously impossible to direct European Socialism from essay about surgery a position three thousand miles away. By 1875 the International was extinct; and hostile as were the attentions given to it by book comparison essays the Governments of Europe, it rather perished of internal dissension, tile struggle between two powerful and antithetic personalities, than from external attack. Not, however, before it had rendered one great service. The Second Empire perished in the defeat of Sedan, and the provisional government created by Thiers was not merely hostile to about surgery, a democratic re-organization, but even looked forward to the building of a new monarchy. The working men of Paris had no sympathy with these ideas; and the Commune was their answer to them. The effort lasted only seven weeks, when it was overthrown amid scenes of unexampled butchery. Marx had been definitely hostile to its inception. For him tile essential function of the workers was to strengthen their own organizations and to prepare themselves thereby for their coming freedom. But when the Communards perished in their heroic folly, and were pursued, as even more modern history has pursued them, by a campaign of virulent and lying attack, Marx came to their defence in what is, the Communist Manifesto apart, the most brilliant pamphlet he ever wrote. The Civil War in France , published as an official statement of the International, is, of course, a partial and incomplete view of the complicated events it narrates; but nothing that has been written since so admirably depicts the ideas and sentiments by which the Communards were inspired, or more energetically displays the savage brutality with which they were treated.
The defence was the more generous when Marx's low opinion of the French Socialist movement is remembered, as also his conviction that Sedan was the just price of Bonapartist imperialism. Yet even in the hour of a victory he welcomed, Marx addressed the German workers in a manifesto which demanded a fair and honourable place for the vanquished. Meanwhile, the systhesis by great labour of essay plastic, his life had been partially completed by the publication, in 1867, of the first volume of the Capital . It cannot be said to have received the welcome it deserved. Written, of course, as it was in argumentative essay cctv, a German particularly cumbrous and involved in structure, it was necessarily caviare to the multitude. The Saturday Review perceived the value of the material of which it made use; though not even Professor Beesly's persuasiveness could induce George Henry Lewes to insert a long notice from Engels in english about plastic, the Fortnightly . Essay Thesis! Russian and French translations soon followed; and in Russia, particularly, the book soon made its way to that position of commanding influence it has never lost. Marx, it must be remembered, was already well-known in Russia. Belinsky had already praised the Franco-German Year Books ; Annenkov had published a long critique from Marx on Proudhon; and his relations with Herzen and Bakunin had made him a notable figure among international Socialists. In Germany the book seems to have made its way but slowly; and the second edition (1873) contains a long protest by Marx against english essay about plastic, what he deemed an book comparison organized conspiracy of silence.
It had, of course, presently to undergo the inevitable attack incidental to english about, all learned German controversy--on the ground that its doctrines had been anticipated; and Marx was ludicrously assumed to have stolen his thunder from Rodbertus. Essays! But within five years from its publication Capital had become the pivotal part of english about plastic surgery, German Socialist literature, and his name assumed the position from which ail other socialists might be surveyed. Marx, was not, however, destined to complete it. The long struggle against poverty had left its mark upon his frame, and the last twelve years of his life were an incessant fight against pain and thesis, disease. Asthma and inflammation of the lungs left him little chance of continuous world, though typically- enough, he devoted his rest to the study of the Russian language that he might speak the more authoritatively, upon its agriculture, and to such recreations as physiology and advanced mathematics. English Essay Plastic! He wrote, too, in 1875, his Criticisms of the Gotha Programme , which contains, perhaps, the clearest statement of essay with thesis, his attitude towards the english essay about plastic transition to Socialism. He was able, further, in 1877-8, to do something towards preparing the second volume of Capital for the press. But visits to on the impolicy of the african slave trade, Karlsbad and Algiers did not improve his shattered health; and he did not lift his head again after the about surgery death of his wife on December 2nd, 1881. Impolicy Trade! To her, Marx had intended, as Engels has told us, to dedicate the completed structure of his work. Plastic Surgery! He had no strength for the effort. Essays! On March 14th, 1883, he died peacefully, after a slight hemorrhage of the lungs.
His old nurse, Helene, and Engels were present at his death; and three days later he was laid to rest in the cemetery at Highgate. Engels and Wilhelm Liebknecht spoke at his graveside; and the former devoted the remaining twelve years of his life to completing the unfinished edifice of english plastic, his master. Marx would have wished no other wreath upon his tomb. Marx's personality is no easy one to paragraphs, dissect. There is no trace of the rebel in his inheritance; and his early education would have fitted him for essay about plastic, any career rather than the one he chose. Movie Essays! If he became the head and centre of the destructive forces of Europe, that was the inevitable outcome of the reactionary regime into which he was born; and he would doubtless have countered that description by insisting that destruction is the parent of creativeness. His work dealt with the historic foundations of the english about permanent source of revolution, and the only weapon, as we realized, for flesh that has mortified is the systhesis by knife. The view that makes of him the compeer of english essay, Darwin, the discoverer of the essay on the impolicy of the slave universal law of economic evolution, has not a little truth in it; but it is less true than that which places him alongside of Rousseau and Carlisle, as one of the great prophets of the human race. For it is essentially by the qualities of the prophet that he is plastic, distinguished. He was unmoved by oracles other than his own. African Slave! Impatient of difference; as with Proudhon and Bakunin, contemptuous, as his correspondence with Engels shows, of all who did not think exactly in his fashion, he never learned the english plastic surgery essential art of colleagueship.
He was too prone to regard a hostile view as proof of moral crime. He had not a little of that zest for priority he was so unwilling to recognize in an essay or present, the discoveries of others. He was rarely generous in his recognition of intellectual stimulus. With Marx, to enter a movement was to dominate it; and he was incapable of talking the second place. Hatred, wrote Mazzini of him, outweighs love in his heart, which is essay about surgery, not right even if the hatred may in itself have foundation. There is a penetrating truth in that criticism. Marx's absorption in be written in past or present tense, the wrongs of the disinherited undoubtedly blinded him to tile universality of human nature. He had brooded so long over the method of their redress, that he became incapable of essay, weighing the value of alternative channels. Essay Outline With Thesis! He never realized how partial and incomplete were the views upon which he based his conclusions; and vast and patient as were the researches he undertook, he was not always exact in his measurement of english, evidence. He is, in fact, a noble, but not an attractive figure.
That there was a Marx eminently lovable in himself, the testimony of friends makes certain; but it was not the systhesis by Marx of public life. There is something unhealthy; in the venom with which he assails early friends like Bruno Bauer, or not less ardent seekers after light like Proudhon. His accusations against Proudhon even when the temptation to destroy is remembered were singularly ungenerous. Learned, courageous, capable of profound sympathy with the mass of men, he was never able to grasp the secret of dealing with individuals. Much, is to english, be pardoned to an exile who never enjoyed comfort, and had often risked his personal safety but Mazzini was able to emerge from trials not less difficult with a sweetness unembittered. Nor could Marx accustom himself to the necessary compromises of political life. One is tempted to feel that Marx confined his introspection to other men, and never attempted that sober examination of self which is often the beginning of political wisdom. That effort, after all, is fundamental. The unstated assumptions of a thinker's personality are the more urgent because they do not appear in the printed word.
Every great philosophic interpretation is at book comparison bottom a spiritual autobiography, and english about surgery, Marx never realized how greatly his work is cctv, a palimpsest within which one can read the history of his personal experience. It is significant for about plastic, his books that his early radicalism should have proved a barrier to his university career. It is significant also that he should have known the pains and penalties of exile. Nor is it irrelevant that, after thirty years in London, he was still, at the end, a German stranger testing facts and constructing theories in terms quite alien from the essays circumstances around him. The impalpable penumbra of his thought never impressed him, even while it remained the subconscious touchstone by which he judged the surgery thought and acts of other men. Thus, while he wrote with superb profundity about the material environment of men's lives, he rarely penetrated into the inner substance of those lives. With such tracts of experience--religion for example--as were alien from his own knowledge he could neither sympathize, nor understand. He wrote a philosophy which expresses in the mass the aspirations of men; but it is not a philosophy, like that of Rousseau which, with all its defects, springs directly from their deepest emotions. In a sense, that is to say, the seeming logic of his attitude is deceptive, for it in movie comparison, part rests upon a failure to test his own assumptions, and in part upon an abstract vied of human nature with which the totality of facts is in direct contradiction.
Marx's doctrines may be divided into five different parts which, though they are brought into connection in his writings, have in reality no necessary dependence upon each other. Their central economic position is a theory of about plastic, value, by which he endeavoured to explain the methods by which the workers are exploited under capitalism; and as a corollary, a view of the increasing concentration of capital from which he derived important consequences in his prophecy of the future. Historically it is an attempt to explain the growth of should be written in past, movements and essay plastic, institutions entirely in comparison essays, economic terms. Predominantly, Marx insists, the antagonism of classes is the motive-power which underlies the historic process; and it is to the impulses which are at work in the satisfaction of economic demand that all changes are to be traced. English! Philosophically, this view results in a purely materialistic view of movie comparison essays, human nature--a view, be it noted, which has obvious and important connections with the general attitude of the Benthamite school. Politically, the english doctrines of Marx resolve themselves into a defcnce of argumentative essay cctv, revolution as the method by which the workers are to attain to power, and dictatorship as the english essay method by essays paragraphs which they so consolidate it as ultimately to secure a condition of general freedom. Upon Marx's theory of value it is not necessary to spend much time. It has not stood the test of english surgery, criticism; it is out of harmony with the facts, and it is far from self-consistent. It represents essentially a narrow interpretation of some loose sentences of Ricardo.
The latter had argued, with certain qualifications, that the value of any commodity is to be measured by the quantity of labour which goes to its production. Argumentative! Marx, however, ignored the qualifications, and the proof he offered of the thesis is essentially different from that of Ricardo. Exchange value, he argued, is not the english essay about plastic singular quality of the commodity in which it inheres. Exchange value is the quality which it possesses alike with all other qualities for which it can be exchanged. Since human labour is the only quality which all commodities possess in common, human labour must be the measure of exchange value. Should Be Written! And, be it noted, by human labour is meant undifferentiated human labour, it is a quantitative and not a qualitative equation. It is a measure simply of effort in english essay, time and not of effort in result or quality of result.
Labour is paid differently simply in relation to the different amount of labour congealed in argumentative cctv, any given commodity produced. That which will suffice to english about plastic, produce the necessaries of life for essay of the trade, the labourer is therefore the price of labour power. engages, as it clearly follows, are the value of the workers necessaries of life. But the worker produces in a day more than suffices for his necessaries of life. If we assume that by working six hours each day the worker can produce his necessaries, while his working day is eight hours long, then the value of what he produces is as eight hours is to six, is, that is to say, one-third greater. Marx termed this extra-production surplus-value, and he assumed that the capitalist, taking his surplus as his profit, robbed the essay about plastic surgery worker of it. For by should an essay or present buying labour-power at its market price! the capitalist at once grows rich and exploits his workers. And in any capitalistic society, especially where there is free competition, this is bound to be the case; from which it of english surgery, course follows that only by the abolition of capitalism can we stop the exploitation of labour. It is unnecessary to dwell at any length upon the fallacies implicit in this analysis. As a matter of logic, Marx had no right to assume that the quality of labour is, other differences being subtracted, the on the impolicy african slave trade common basis of measurement.
Nor did he mention that in addition to labour, all commodities to have value must have this at least in common, that they satisfy some need. Utility, in other words, is a necessary factor in value; it would be impossible to produce aeroplanes except upon the assumption that some people wanted to fly in them. Nor can undifferentiated human labour be taken as a measure of value. English Essay Plastic! It is an economic platitude that differences in wages are not merely due to differences in the effort in time of production. It costs no less to produce a bad carpenter than a good one, but the quality of a good carpenter's world has a value quite apart from cost as effort; it has the type of value which the economists call a quasi-rent, and this quasi-rent appears in the value-in-exchange of the product. Nor is this all. Wherever there is a type of production the phenomena of which result in rent, the measurement of value is not the on the of the african slave mean cost of production but the marginal cost of production. Marx failed to note this limitation, with the re tilt that he cannot under stand the nature of rent and was led into obvious contradictions. (3) And he fails also to take any account of the fluctuating character of demand. He seems to have regarded demand as purely static, and falls, as a consequence, into all the difficulties which Bohm-Bawerk and the Austrian school have emphasized. To say, moreover, with Marx that the cost of a labourer is the socially necessary cost, the about surgery lowest cost, that is, at essay with which he can be produced, is immediately to bring within purview tests of his hypothesis which he entirely failed to apply.
For if wages represent the cost of necessaries, the existence of a proletariat whose wages are above the bare cost of necessaries clearly invalidates the english about plastic whole process. hand, in fact, the question of a wages level is an historical problem in which logical considerations do not play the whole part. Should Be Written In Past Or Present! Social conscience, for example, as with the english essay about plastic surgery Trade Boards, may insist upon a rate of wages historically above the socially necessary cost, and trade unions may by the combined strength they represent, lead to the same result. If a state, even though it be a capitalistic state, chose to adopt a policy of a minimum basis of civilized life, in which a wage-standard was fixed, the iron law of wages, which Marx deduced from essays his theory of value, would immediately be obsolete. It must not be forgotten, moreover, that in the Marxian analysis whatever does not appear as wages, is always regarded as unearned profit. Of rent and english surgery, interest this is, perhaps, no unfair account, but it is outside the systhesis by evidence of facts to argue that the task of directing business, the work of the entrepreneur, is not to count as labour and does not create value. Even when a suspicion of this impossibility dawned upon Marx, he dismissed the earnings of direction simply as cunning, (4) and argued that all profits contain an element of surplus value which differs from interest, wages and payment to the entrepreneur. But if profits are not a payment for about, work then it should surely follow that the capitalist must take it also; otherwise he is essays, gifted with a quality of essay about, moderation with which Marx does not normally endow him. In such a general background, the Marxian theory of value seems clearly untenable not less on essay impolicy slave theoretic grounds than from an analysis of the facts of business. et it is equally undeniable that Marx's view has obtained the assent of a whole class of society to its truth; and it is, therefore, worth while for a moment to inquire exactly what magic it possesses from which its strengthening hold is derived. About Plastic! That, it may be suggested, is simple enough.
Fr the technical economist, the difference between profits and rent Noms fundamental. Men like Ricardo and Nassau Senior saw a natural distinction in source of origin which manufacturers like Bright embodied in the legitimate earnings of a hardworking mill-owner, whatever his wealth, and the illegitimate because unearned income of a land-owning duke. Argumentative! They saw it the more clearly when, as in the period of Marx's own maturity, they were struggling to free his business from the environment of a hostile squirearchy. But to the labourer, as Marx clearly saw, such a distinction Noms for practical purposes irrelevant. Essay About Plastic Surgery! The world was divided for him into those who lived by wages and those who did not. Those who lived by wages were poor, those who did not live by wages were rich. Assume, as Marx assumed, that the surplus theory of essay on the impolicy of the african, value is true, and the riches of those who do not live by wages are due to the poverty of those who do.
The worker was able to see that he was poor; he saw also that he produced more than he could consume, and that his surplus production was divided among a relatively small class of rich, and often idle, men. A theory such as Marx's inevitably appealed to him as the natural explanation of his oppressed condition. He clung to english essay about surgery, it, not by virtue of any logical estimation of its theoretic adequacy, but because it summarized the most poignant experience he knew. The Marxian law of wages, moreover, will, from its very nature, win new adherents at every period of commercial depression. At any moment when there is essay with, a decline in about surgery, the effective demand for commodities, or when the strength of trade union resistance is at a low ebb, the impact of capitalism upon the wage-earner will closely resemble what Marx insisted is its normal relation; for few business men have imagination enough to realize that there are other ways to the rehabilitation of should be written in past or present tense, markets than the reduction of price by means of lower wages. Inevitably, therefore, the worker will move from the english plastic acceptance of surplus value to systhesis by, the philosophy which Marx constructed as its natural environment. The law of the concentration of capital stands upon english essay about surgery, firmer ground. The greater the degree of complexity involved in the productive process, argues Marx, the fewer will be the number of persons controlling its instruments. Everything contributes to the intensification of this process.
New means of communication are established, the problems of which are beyond the solution of the small capitalist. Important mechanical inventions are beyond his financial means. Cctv! Territorial consolidation destroys the local market in which he was once a privileged person. The process, indeed, is neither immediate nor direct. It took the bourgeoisie three centuries to expropriate the artisan and create the english about proletariat.
But once the process had begun, the development was inexorable. Over production created a new army of reserve workers. Systhesis By! The substitution of pasture for arable farming concentrated a large rural population in the towns. English Essay About! The economies of large scale production forced hitherto independent producers into the ranks of the wage-earners. The capitalistic system moves from a national to an international character; its market becomes the world. Its nature involves increasing centralization, until the control of the forces of production reaches a point where its further development in should an essay be written in past, private hands is impossible.
For alongside the development of english, accumulation is the increase of the proletariat. The workers cannot any longer endure the outline thesis misery that is involved in the capitalist regime. They have learned discipline from the training that is necessitated by the mechanism of the process of which they are the victims. The knell of capitalist private property then sounds. The expropriators are expropriated. To the essay about surgery great capitalist there succeeds them state, which is captured by the workers for their own purpose. The result of capitalism is, in fact, its own destruction. It produces, in on the slave, Hegelian fashion, its own antithesis.
The very condition of its growth is that it should involve the english plastic laws which imply its inevitable ruin. We need not accept the conclusion of the argument to insist on the important truth that it contains. The wastage of with, competition in large scale enterprise is a commonplace of modern business, and about plastic surgery, the trust or cartel is the characteristic symptom of industrial development. There are, indeed, certain important limitations to the simplicity of the Marxian view. Systhesis By! The growth of joint stock enterprise distributes over a wider circle the number of those interested in the receipt of profits, even while it limits those who actually control the essay about plastic industrial process itself; while there are many minor industries, of which photography and the repair of motor-cars are examples, in which the tendency is to the increase of small firms rather than to the development of great ones.
But parallel with this evolution has gone a very striking centralization of credit which concentrates in continuously fewer hands the finances of the community. Agriculture, indeed, despite the large-scale farming of Western America, and the development of agrarian co-operation, remains persistently individualist in temper. Systhesis By! (5) Yet, on the balance of inquiry it is impossible to deny the emergence of an increasingly collectivist spirit. And its reaction upon industry is the more important because it leads, without question to the demand by the workers of certain nominal standards from the state which are increasingly insisted upon as the condition of business enterprise. Nor is that all. It becomes obvious that certain industries are, from their very nature, too vital in their results to be left to the chaotic possibilities of private effort. If the expropriators are not actually expropriated, there comes, as with mines and essay plastic, railways, a demand for some form of nationalization, and just as the investigations of the 'thirties and 'forties produced the Factory Acts, so it is legitimate to argue that the results of inquiries like the Coal Commission of 1919, and the Dockers' Inquiry of 1920, are likely to put a term to the continuance of private enterprise.
Capitalism, in fact, prepares monopolies which immediately affect the outline with community towards some form of state administration. So regarded, of course, this view does not involve the theory of revolution which Marx regarded as the inevitable corollary of capitalistic concentration. It need not, indeed, involve a transition towards a socialistic state at all. All that would seem to be implied would be the removal of industries essential to the welfare of the community from the danger of exploitation by private interests. The logic of english plastic surgery, a necessary conflict resultant upon the concentration of capital is derived by Marx from other sources. It is the corollary of systhesis by, his interpretation of history. That, broadly speaking, may be summarized by saying that all the phenomena of history are the english essay plastic result of economic motives. Should Tense! To them are traceable legal and social institutions not less than the religion and philosophy of english plastic, each age. Argumentative Essay! The system of about, production is the ultimate factor, in short, by which the should be written or present tense mass of human relationships is determined.
Protestantism, Engels wrote, is essentially a bourgeois religion; so too, in about plastic surgery, a feudal period vie should expect the legislation to reflect not general ideas of systhesis by, right, but those ideas of right which are compatible with the maintenance of english essay, feudalism. But ideas change, and in Marx's view, the source of paragraphs, change is english about surgery, to, be discovered in the transformation of one economic system into another. A new external world produces new internal ideas. Let women enter industry in the mass and, as Mr. Bertrand Russell has pointed out, ideas which not even the logic of Plato and Stuart Mill could make obvious, become accepted without question. Two hundred years ago, it was unthinkable that a peer should go into argumentative cctv, the city; to-day, finance has enmeshed political life within its fold, so that no company prospectus is complete until the peerage is represented there.
No one can doubt the very large measure of truth in this outlook. No one can write the english essay about surgery history of English Puritanism, of the struggle for toleration, or of the essays paragraphs American Revolution, without making the defence of an economic incentive fundamental to their explanation. But it is equally clear that the insistence upon an economic background as the whole exclamation is radically false. No economic motive can explain the suicidal nationalism of the Balkans. The war of 1914 may have been largely due to conflicting commercial imperialisms; but there was also a competition of national ideas which was at no point economic. Historically. too, the part played by english essay plastic surgery religion in the determination of an essay or present, social outlook was, until at least the peace of Westphalia, as important as that played by material conditions. Luther represents something more than a protest against the financial exactions of Rome. The impulses of men, in fact, are never referable to any single source., The love of power, herd-instinct, rivalry, the desire of display, all these are hardly less vital than the acquisitiveness which explains the strength of material environment. Engels, indeed, seems to have realized the narrowness of the english about plastic orthodox view, for on the african, in the about surgery later years of his life he insisted that the essay outline with dominant part ascribed by Marx to the economic motive was due mainly to english essay, its neglect by his opponents, and there was not always time, place and opportunity to do justice to the other considerations.
But with Marx the economic motive is should an essay, not only final, it is final in english essay plastic surgery, a particular way. The only durable source of faction, said Madison, is property, and, for Marx, the emergence of movie comparison essays, private property in history is the beginning of the class struggle. Immediately society can be divided into english, those who do, and those who do not, possess private property, a power is released which explains the changes of history. For the with class which possesses property moulds the civilization of essay plastic, that society in the service of argumentative, its own interests. It controls the government, it makes the laws, it builds the social institutions of the commonwealth in accordance with its own desires. Slave and free man, master and servant, these have been the eternal antitheses of history. With the advent of capitalism the struggle is at once simplified, and made more intense. Thenceforward, the final stage of the class-war, the struggle between bourgeoisie and proletariat, emerges. And just as each social order of the past has secreted within its womb the germ of its successor, as for example, feudalism produced capitalism, so does the latter contain within itself the english essay plastic surgery germ of its communist successor. Should In Past Or Present Tense! Capitalism, said Marx, produces its own gravedigger.
The conflict, in his view, was an inevitable and a bitter one, and it was bound to english about surgery, result in the victory of the proletariat. The bourgeoisie, he wrote in the Communist Manifesto , is incapable of continuing in power because it is incapable of securing a bare subsistence to its slaves; and the result is a growing sense of revolt in the worker who ultimately, by a revolutionary act, assumes the reins of power. In a large sense, it is obvious that the substance of this interpretation is accurate. Systhesis By! The fact of the english about plastic class struggle, as Marx himself pointed out, is a commonplace of historians and economists; and it may be added that to deny its importance is to an essay, make history unintelligible. Where diary parted company with his predecessors Noms in the deductions he drew from his perception of its significance.
For whereas with men like Madison and Guizot, the fact of essay about, conflict produced a sense of horror at its implications, and a search for with, a technique that its dangers might be obviated, with Marx the english essay plastic surgery conflict was fundamental and essays, both its method and ultimate outcome were to him alike obvious. Whereas with Madison there is an ever present uncertainty whether a just victory may not suffer betrayal, or a wrong object be pursued, with Marx the process is english about surgery, predetermined and, save for a brief period in essays, 1870, no hesitation seems to have crossed his mind. The method by which the proletariat was to secure power lies at english about surgery the very root of Marx's doctrine; and it has been in our own day, perhaps, the essays paragraphs main source of his influence. The method was revolution, and a dictatorship of english surgery, iron rigour would consolidate the new system until the period of systhesis by, transition had been effectively bridged. Marx did not blind himself to plastic, what all this implied. The history of movie book comparison, capitalism was the history of a relentless defence of each phase of the rights of property. They were maintained by methods at english plastic surgery each point unconnected with ethical demands. If the conflict was extreme as in the days of June, 1848, or with the Commune of Paris, the last ounce of misery was wrung from its opponents, that capitalism might be secure. A period of essay with, comparative quiescence may produce the concession of social reform, but this is merely deception. Once a really vital point is touched by the workers' demands, they are met by english essay about plastic surgery armed resistance.
That means, of course, that only by conscious violent intervention can communism be realized. Movie Comparison Essays! The proletariat must seize a propitious moment for the revolution; but until it comes, they must do all in their power to disturb the existing regime. Even if minor successes have beer achieved by the aid of the liberal-minded bourgeoisie from the first hour of victory, the workers must level their distrust against their former allies. English About Plastic Surgery! They must create a working-class organization of their own workers' committees, local workers' councils, to oppose proletarian institutions and their influence to those of the middle-class state. Essay Outline! The Communists must arm the proletariat and do all they can to cut down the army of the State as the chief weapon of defence possessed by the bourgeoisie. English About Plastic Surgery! Where the movie book workers are in the militia, they must form within it a secret organization to obtain its control. They must form their own independent, if hidden, military force and acquire arms by every method. Influential democrats to whose word the essay working class seems to respond, must be discredited. The old social order, in fact, must be attacked at every point.
Communists have two functions only, to essay on the african slave trade, prepare for the revolution, and to consolidate it successfully when it has been prepared. They must think of essay, themselves not as realizing an ideal, but only as setting free the elements of a new society concealed within the womb of the old. The period of consolidation, moreover, must be a period of iron dictatorship. Marx had no illusions about the possibility of a democratic governance in such an hour. The ideals of freedom were impossible to maintain until the ground so conquered had been made secure. Revolution provokes counter-revolution; and a victorious proletariat must be on its guard against reaction. Revolution, in movie comparison essays, fact, demands of the revolutionary class that it secure its purpose by every method at its disposal. It has neither time nor opportunity for compassion or remorse. Its business is to terrorize its opponents into english surgery, acquiescence.
It must disarm antagonism by execution, imprisonment, forced labour, control of the press. Essays! For as it cannot allow any effort at essay the violent overthrow of what it has established, so must it stamp out such criticism as might be the prelude to further attack. Revolution is war, and war is founded upon terror. The methods of capitalism must be used for the extinction of capitalism. For as capitalism has made of life itself the cheapest of commodities, there need be no repining at its sacrifice, and the result, in any case, is worth the cost, since it destroys the comparison essays possibility of future sale. It would have been a wanton betrayal of trust, said Marx of the english essay about plastic surgery Paris Commune, to observe the traditional forms of liberalism. The end, in fact, is too great to be nice about the means employed. Nor can we expect that a peaceful revolution is possible. While Marx had certain doubts of systhesis by, England, on the whole he was certain that a violent struggle was inevitable.
The workers might capture Parliament at the polls; but political power of that kind is in any case a shadow, and were it used for an assault upon property, it would inevitably provoke an armed resistance. Marx indeed, went further and was openly contemptuous of democracy. It was a bourgeois invention unrelated to the real, and used only to deceive the people. Again and again the proletariat is betrayed; and throughout Marx's writings there is the assumption that reliance must be placed upon a class-conscious minority. For in his view there is no place in history for the majority principle; the record of States is the english about surgery clash between determined minorities, contending for the seat of power. To introduce considerations of consent, to wait on in the belief that the obvious rightness of communist doctrine will ultimately persuade men to its acceptance, is entirely to ignore reality.
The mass of essay on the trade, men will always acquiesce in, or be indifferent to, whatever solutions are afforded. Communists must proceed upon the assumption that nothing matters save the english about surgery enforcement of argumentative, their will. Upon the end this revolution is to serve, the forms its purpose will adopt, Marx has written but little. Obviously, with justice on his side; for english about plastic surgery, speculation in movie book comparison essays, distant historical futures is the worst form of gambling It was with the destruction of capitalism and the period of transition therefrom that he was mainly concerned. A new productive system was bound to involve new institutions which no man could foresee. That the essay about Communist maxim, From each according to his powers, to each according to his wants, would become operative was, of course obvious to him; that performance would be measured in terms of labour-time (a possibly inconsistent hypothesis) he took for granted. Argumentative Essay Cctv! But he was always emphatic that the future must settle itself. He insisted that the measure of distribution would be necessarily unequal in the period of transition. English! You may, as he saw, destroy by catastrophe, but creation is not an immediate and spontaneous process. So that he nowhere set limits to the duration of this intermediate period. It was necessary to wait until the habits engendered bv a new productive system created a psychology in which the dogma of equality superseded the movie book essays bourgeois hypothesis of individual rights.
The main thing was the destruction of a regime in about surgery, which classdistinction made possible the servitude of the be written in past or present many. It was possible to have confidence in an order in which the english essay about whole force of social effort was deliberately placed at book comparison essays the disposal of the common welfare. A generation which has seen this doctrine supported by english about plastic machine-guns and bayonets is unlikely to belittle its importance. Nor can it be denied that not a little of social evolution has taken the course Marx predicted. Essay On The Impolicy African Trade! Anyone who reads the english essay surgery history of the industrial struggle in Colorado or West Virginia will find it difficult to discover a limit of unreason which capitalism is not willing consistently to cctv, overpass. The treatment of communists in Hungary and Finland has exactly the characteristics he foretold. English Essay About Plastic Surgery! An isolated community like the miners of South Wales becomes, naturally communist in the background of incompetence and ill-treatment from their employers.
And representative government, at least in its classical form, seems unlikely to justify the high hopes of its Benthamite exponents. Every country in argumentative essay, the world that has experimented with universal suffrage has experienced a sense of disillusion. It is even commonplace to argue that reason has little place in political struggle, and to pin faith to an irrational impulse which seeks no more than the satisfaction of individual desire. If there has been an improvement in the general standard of civilization, an increasing unwillingness, for example, to inflict unnecessary pain, there are no signs of the mitigation of the class-conflict. English Essay! On the should be written in past tense contrary, the english essay surgery events of the last decade point directly to its exacerbation; and movie comparison, we have obviously entered upon a period in which the rights of property are challenged at their foundation. Certainly it is unquestionable that the purchase-price of capitalist survival is the english essay plastic offer of concessions which a generation ago would have seemed not less unnecessary than unthinkable. Yet the approximation of the general atmosphere to the condition Marx had in view hardly justifies the movie book comparison essays principles upon which he placed his reliance. To begin with, the english essay plastic preparation for revolution is systhesis by, a qualitatively different problem from what it was in the days of the about plastic Paris barricades. It is possible in a mood of defeat for a civilian population to should an essay tense, destroy a regime which the army and navy no longer uphold, and, as was demonstrated long ago by Cromwell, a military force which is english surgery, dissatisfied with its civilian superiors can without difficulty become their master. But for a party of men in the position of communists in the modern State, the situation is essay, very different. Unless they are the essay plastic surgery majority and, consequently, the government, the hostility of the army and navy is certain.
Nor can they obtain, on any large scale, the necessary equipment for insurrection. They would have to obtain control of the national arsenals; and that would mean the dispersion of forces in any case small by hypothesis. They would have to meet in the people at large at least a mood of movie comparison, acquiescence. They would have to guarantee a supply of food, which, in any but a dominantly agricultural society, would be practically impossible if international credit was seriously impaired by english essay plastic the revolution. Essay On The Impolicy African! Even if we regard a general strike as tantamount, in the conditions of essay plastic, modern industry, to a revolution the difficulties are overwhelming. A general strike might well succeed as a protest against impolicy slave trade, war, for its penumbra might, in the future, arouse emotions of determination that would be irresistible. But upon english about plastic, any less dramatic issue, it seems tolerably certain that once again, the army and navy must be in the control of the strikers if success is to be assured. For a modern army can supply all services connected with transportation; it can secure the distribution of food, and the problem of essay with, fuel is becoming less and less a matter of mining coal. The Marxian view of a secretly armed minority assuming power at a single stroke is essay plastic surgery, unthinkable in the modern state.
It would have to imply either the existence of a government so weak that it had practically ceased to be a government at all, or, what perhaps, an equivalent, a population actively sympathetic to the revolutionary minority. The resources of publicity in modern civilization make impossible the private preparation of the systhesis by gigantic effort assumed by the Marxian hypothesis. But this is only the beginning of the difficulty. Marx assumed throughout his analysis a system of compact states the life of which was mainly determined by english plastic economic considerations, and each relatively independent of its neighbours. Each of these assumptions is only partially true of the modern world.
A State like England, which is wholly dependent on foreign trade, could not undergo a successful revolution except upon the assumption that her neighbours viewed its results with benevolence. Such an attitude on the part, for instance, of America is very unlikely, and the rupture of Anglo-American Trade would be fatal to any revolution in this country. For is that all. It is outline with, quite clear that the division a revolution would imply must, in its workings, be very partially determined by economic considerations. In a country like America, for example, there would be at least three other factors of about, vital importance. Impolicy Of The African Slave Trade! An American communist revolution would have to cope with problems of about plastic surgery, distance which would probably render it abortive at a very early stage. It would not, as in France, be a matter of the immense impact of the capital on the life of the nation; Washington is relatively insignificant in the perspective of America. To control the essay on the impolicy african trade whole continent would involve controlling the most complicated railway system in the world. And even if that difficulty could be surmounted, a complex of essay about plastic surgery, nationalist differences would have to be assuaged.
German, French, English, Irish, Polish, these have their special characteristics which the American capitalist has been able to exploit to their common disadvantage; it is difficult to see how an appeal to a communist minority of each would result in the transcendence of these differences. Even then, the religious problem remains; and essays, the hold of the churches upon the mind, particularly, of the Latin peoples would not be easy to loosen. For Marx, insisting only upon the economic motive, it is easy to ignore these difficulties, but it is far too narrow an outlook not to english essay plastic, realize at the outset that appeal can be made to other incentives every whit as strong. And even if it were argued that Marx could in our own time assume that the day of such prejudice as nationality and religion engender is passing (which is doubtful), and that the barriers built by economic difference are now alone important, his conclusions would not follow. For in a period of universal suffrage, it ought then to be possible to capture the seat of power at the polls, and throw upon the capitalist the onus of revolting against a socialist democracy. There are, however, other approaches to the problem which Marx did not adequately consider.
There is, in the first place, the general result upon society of the essay thesis practice of violence, particularly when the destructive nature of english essay surgery, modern warfare is borne in movie book comparison, mind; and, in the second, there is the english surgery special psychological result upon the agents of the should be written in past tense opposing forces in such a regime. Marx did not consider these possibilities, in part because he judged that, in any case, the conflict was inevitable, and also because he was convinced that whatever sacrifices had to be made would be ultimately justified by the result. Such an attitude is, of course, simply an instance of his general failure to essay plastic surgery, weigh sufficiently the substance of a political psychology. In part, also, it is the corollary of a determinism which the facts in issue at no point justify. For it is obvious that if revolution, with its attendant violence, is justified for any cause in which you happen to believe profoundly, no modern state can hope for either security and movie book, order. The war has shown clearly that the impulses of savagery which are checked by about plastic surgery peace are, when loosed, utterly destructive of the foundations of a decent existence. If life became an organized and continuous jacquerie, civilization could quite easily be reduced to the state where, as in Mr. Wells's imaginary but far from impossible picture, some aged survivor may tell of an should in past or present tense organized Europe as a legend which his grandchildren cannot hope to understand. About Plastic! Violence, on the grand scale, in fact, so far from essay with proving an avenue to communism, would be the one kind of english about surgery, existence in which the impulses demanded by a communist state had no hope of emergence. For the condition of communism is the restraint of exactly those appetites which violence releases; and Marx has nowhere indicated how this difficulty could be met. Even beyond this issue, a further point must be raised.
Marx has assumed the seizure of power, and a period of rigorous control until the systhesis by people are prepared for communism. But he has not shown what approximate length that period is to be, nor what certainty we have that those who act as controllers of the dictatorship will be willing to surrender their power at the proper time. It is a commonplace of history that power is poisonous to those who exercise it; there is no reason to assume that the Marxian dictator will in this respect be different from other men. And, ex hypothesi, it will be more difficult to defeat his malevolence since his regime will have excluded the possibility of opposition. No group of men who exercise the powers of a despot can ever retain the habit of democratic responsibility. That is obvious, for instance, in the case of men like Sir Henry Maine and Fitzjames Stephen, who, having learned in India the habit of autocratic government, become impatient on their return to England of the slow process of essay plastic, persuasion which democracy implies. To sit continuously in the seat of office is inevitably to become separated from the mind and wants of should be written, those over whom you govern. For the governing class acquires an interest of english essay, its own, a desire for permanence, a wish, perhaps, to retain the dignity and importance which belong to their function; and they will make an effort to secure them.
That, after all, is only to insist that every system of an essay be written, government' breeds a system of habits; and to english essay plastic, argue as a corollary, therefrom that the Marxian dictatorship would breed habits fatal to the emergence of the regime Marx had ultimately in view. The special vice of every historic system of government has been its inevitable tendency to identify its own private good with the public welfare. To suggest that communists might do the same is no more than to postulate their humanity. And it may be added that if they surrendered power at a reasonable time, the outline with thesis grounds for so doing, being obviously in their nature non-economic, would thereby vitiate the truth of the materialistic interpretation of history. All this, it is worth noting, is to omit from consideration the ethical problems that are involved.
It is obvious, for example, that it involves the complete erosion of the essay whole historic process. But the movie comparison essays erosion of responsibility in the governing class is the about plastic destruction of personality in their subjects. In such a regime notions of liberty and equality are out of place. Yet it is obvious that the two main defects of systhesis by, capitalism are its failure to produce liberty and equality for the mass of humble men and women. Marx, that is to say, contemplated a condition which reproduces exactly the chief vices of capitalism without offering any solid proof of their ultimate extinction. For, after all, the chief effort that is worth making is towards a civilization in english essay, which what Mr.
Graham Wallas has termed, the capacity of continuous initiative, is should an essay, implied in the fact of citizenship. It is clear enough that the possibility upon which the existence of that capacity turns is a wide distribution of power. A man whose thought and acts are at the disposal of other men is deprived of essay plastic surgery, his personality, and that deprivation is implied in the rigorous centralization to systhesis by, which Marx looked forward. Unquestionably, he was right in his insistence that the distribution of economic power in a capitalist state makes the enjoyment of such personality impossible to most; but it does not seem any more likely to emerge in essay about plastic, the successor to it that he contemplated. We may go further and argue that it is impossible in any state where the main purpose of, and motive to, effort, is the increase of material wealth.
No society can realize itself in any full sense of the word until the mainspring of its existence is cctv, a capacity to value things of the mind as more precious than material commodities. That involves a sociology in which the economic motive which Marx emphasized is appraised at a low level. Obviously, to achieve the condition in which that appraisal is possible, involves an educational system far different, both in scope and purpose, from english plastic what we now have. Or Present! It involves a complete transformation of essay plastic, values, in which things like the wider appreciation of art, the study of science and philosophy. the release, in short, of the creative energies of or present, men from about plastic their present bondage, are regarded as the main and immediate effort of political organization. Yet, if historic experience is to count for anything-- and Marx's philosophy is nothing if not the interpretation of historical experience--it is exactly this transformation of values which cannot take place in the development Marx had in view. The barbarian invasions of an essay in past or present tense, Rome did not produce a great art and a great culture, they produced the dark ages. The Thirty Years' War impeded constructive effort in Germany until the threshold of the nineteenth century.
Nor has our own experience been different. English Essay About! The idealism of 1914 has perished before the greater strength of the purely destructive forces released in the struggle. What we have realized is how tenuous and fragile are the bonds of in past or present tense, civilization, how little likely they are to be reinforced by any effort save that of peace. In such a background, the conflict that Marx envisaged looms before us as the harbinger of precisely those evils from which we are seeking release. It emphasizes in men the english plastic impulses against which civilization is essay on the impolicy of the slave trade, a protest.
That wrong can be wiped out with wrong, that we are to regard ourselves as the about plastic surgery victims of blind and impersonal forces against which it is useless to strive, that the possessive impulses of men cannot be transcended by creative effort--these and things like these are a gospel of movie book essays, impossible despair. Essay About Surgery! In that aspect, surely, the older socialists were right who made the basis of their creed a doctrine of right and fraternity and justice. For right and fraternity and justice imply love as their foundation; they do not spring, even at the last vain striving from systhesis by a doctrine founded upon english essay about plastic, hate. The real power and influence of Marx lie in a direction essentially different from what is generally assumed. He was the first thinker to expose in all its hollowness the moral inadequacy of a commercial civilization.: He showed that in any society where the main effort is the attainment of wealth, the qualities that are basically noble cannot acquire their full vigour. He did, in fact, for the economic relationships of peoples what Grotius did for their international relationships. He founded both a science and an ideal. Systhesis By! For he made finally impossible any economic system which makes the volume of trade the test of national well-being; and he put in the forefront of plastic surgery, social discussion the essay african slave trade ultimate question of the condition of the people. And he performed the incalculable service to his generation of bringing to essay about, it a message of hope in an epoch where men seemed to impolicy of the slave, themselves to have become the hapless victims of english plastic surgery, a misery from which there was no release. In every country of the world where men have set themselves to essays, the task of social improvement, Marx has been always the source of inspiration and prophecy.
His weaknesses, of course, are obvious and important. He diagnoses a disease admirably, says Mr. Wells, in an excellent phrase, and then suggests rather an incantation than a remedy. Yet the diagnosis is an essential part of the cure. No one can read unmoved the picture he drew of the results of the Industrial Revolution. Massive in its outline, convincing in its detail, it was an indictment such as neither Carlyle nor Ruskin had power or strength to draw. It is relatively unimportant that his explanations of the english essay plastic surgery phenomena he depicted have not stood the test of criticism. Should An Essay Be Written Tense! What is english, vital in the whole was his perception that a society dominated by business men and organized for the prosperity of business men had become intolerable. Hardly less splendid was his insistence that no social order is adequate in movie book comparison, which the collective energies of men are not devoted to their common life. It does not matter that such perception had been given to others, that such insistence was not new. No thinker of the nineteenth century drove home the lesson with force so irresistible or with urgency so profound.
Even his advocacy of catastrophic revolution has this much of truth in it, that a point is reached in the development of any social system where men will refuse to accept any longer a burden they find too great to bear; and, in that moment, if they cannot mitigate, they will become determined to destroy. The condition, in fact, upon which a state may hope to endure is its capacity for english about, making freedom in essay outline, each generation more widespread and more intense. Where Marx was wrong was in his belief that the catastrophe was, in itself, worthy of attainment and in english, his emphasis upon its ultimate benefit. Movie Book! But where he was, also, irresistibly right was in his prophecy that the civilization of his epoch was built upon sand. And even the faults of his prophecy may be pardoned to an agitator in english essay about surgery, exile to whom the cause of the oppressed was dearer than his own welfare. At bottom, the cctv main passion by essay surgery which he was moved was the passion for justice. Should Be Written Tense! He may have hated too strongly, he was jealous, and he was proud. But the english essay plastic mainspring of his life was the desire to take from the shoulders of the people the argumentative essay burden by which it was oppressed.
He realized that what, in all varieties of time and place, has caused the downfall of a governing class, has never been some accidental or superficial event. The real cause of revolution is the unworthiness of those who controlled the destinies of a people. Indifference to suffering, selfishness, lack of moral elevation, it was for english essay about surgery, those defects that he indicted the class from which he sprang. He transformed the fears of the workers into hopes, he translated their effort from interest in political mechanisms to essays paragraphs, interest in social foundations. He did not trust in essay about, the working of laws, he sought always for the spirit that lay behind the order of which they were the should an essay be written expression. He was often wrong, he was rarely generous, he was always bitter; yet when the roll of those to whom the emancipation of the people is due comes to be called, few will have a more honourable, and none a more eminent place. 1. See A. Berthod, Proudhon et la Propriété ; C. Bougle, La Sociologic de Proudhon; G. Pirou, Proudhon et Syndicalisme Révolutionnaire ; les Amis de Proudhon, Proudhon et Ses Temps . 2. Essay About! But Considerant, though his picture of the economic situation is like that of Marx, rejects revolutionary communism.
3. See Das Kapital , vol. III, pp. 80-1, and argumentative cctv, 102, for an example of two quite different theories of rent within a dozen pages. 4. Vol. III (German edition) Part 1, p. English Essay About! 343 ff. 5. Argumentative Essay! Cf.
Herman Levy, Large and small holdings (1911).