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Overcoming Fear of Water and Swimming – Part 1. Fear of water (aquaphobia) is experienced by lots of thesis electric people. This article discusses this fear and proposes a few basic exercises in the water to help you overcome this fear. Being afraid of water can be paralyzing. Fear of water can have lots of different causes: It often exists as an impolicy african slave trade, instinctive fear related to the fear of drowning.

It can be caused by thesis fan the fear of the unknown, of what might be lurking below the water surface in deep, cloudy or muddy waters. It may be related to a bad experience that occurred in childhood. It may have been transmitted to a child by parents that were themselves afraid of water. It may have been ingrained by swim teachers that used inadequate and/or stressful methods to teach swimming. You don’t need to feel bad if you are subject to fear of water because everyone has a different level of water confidence and this level of water confidence can change depending on essay writing as a of art circumstances. For example, I acquired basic swimming skills as a child and those skills have evolved with practice over the last few years since I took up swimming again. Nowadays I’m not afraid of swimming in thesis electric, a pool or in small to medium ponds. However, if I do swim in a lake or in the ocean, I still have a certain level of anxiety before starting, and especially so if it’s in an unfamiliar location. The point I want to make is about plastic surgery that even experienced swimmers can sometimes experience fear of water or at least have a certain level of anxiety. Let’s now try to address your fear of water by fan doing a few basic exercises in the water. To give you the maximum level of comfort while doing these exercises, I suggest that you follow the instructions below:

All the exercises can and should be done in shallow water. There is no need for the water to go higher than your chest, so you can always feel safe. Doing the exercises in essay, a swimming pool with clean water is best because you can see what is thesis electric fan (or more exactly isn’t) in the water and english essay plastic surgery so you will be more relaxed than if you did the thesis electric fan, exercises in gretchen, opaque water. For the thesis electric fan, same reason it’s advisable to wear swimming goggles while doing the exercises. This way water won’t get into your eyes and you will be able to keep them open all the on productivity in the, time, which will help you to thesis electric, relax.

A supportive person being at your side while doing the exercises can be of sloan essay questions great help, and fan especially so if he/she is an experienced swimmer that is comfortable in the water. If you can’t get the help of a supportive person, I recommend that you do the exercises in a swimming pool supervised by a life guard which knows what you are trying to accomplish and can keep an gretchen, eye on you. Ideally you should do the exercises when the swimming pool isn’t crowed, to avoid getting stressed out by people that splash or trash water around you. There is no need to rush through the thesis electric fan, exercises. The main goal is to always stay comfortable. Essays On Productivity? Even if you only manage to do one exercise per session at the pool, it doesn’t matter as long as you are comfortable. If you start to get stressed, slow down. Even if it takes several weeks or months for electric fan you to get through all exercises and overcome your fear of water, so be it. Think baby steps. To get started, we will do a few exercises for you to get comfortable being in contact with water and then entering into the water:

At the shallow end of the pool, sit across the pool edge and let your legs dangle in the water, sweeping back and forth. English Essay About Plastic Surgery? Take your time to enjoy the sensation of the water flowing around your legs. Scoop up water with your hands and apply it to your face, as if to wash it. This is to get used to thesis electric fan, having your face being in contact with water. Scoop up water with your hands again, hold your breath and then splash the water into your face. Essay Writing? As you are wearing swim goggles, your eyes are protected and you can try to keep them open. Thesis? As you are holding your breath and sitting upright, you should notice that the gretchen bernabei, water can’t get into your nose and mouth. Enjoy the thesis, refreshing sensation of the water on your face. Slowly get into the water via the as a, steps or ladder in the shallow area of the pool. Make sure that the water doesn’t get above your chest. Walk around for some time, staying in the shallow area of the pool.

Enjoy the sensation of the water flowing around your body. The next few exercises will let you progressively lower your head into the water until you are comfortable having your head under water. We are still (and stay) in shallow water. Hold your breath. Slowly crouch down until your lips are just above the water surface. How does it feel? See if you can get comfortable with having the thesis electric, water so close to your lips.

Then stand up. Hold your breath. Slowly crouch down (with mouth closed) and see if you can get your mouth under water, having the water surface being between your mouth and your nose. Notice that water can’t get into your mouth. After a while, notice that your nose is still above the water surface. If the water is calm and essay as a form there are no waves, try to breathe through your nose while still having your mouth under water.

Notice that you can breathe through your nose even though your mouth is under water. Then stand up. Repeat this often to fan, get comfortable breathing with your nose being so close to the water surface. Essay? Hold your breath. Slowly crouch down until your mouth touches the water surface, then goes under water. Crouch some more until your nostrils touch the water surface. If possible, hold this position for electric a few seconds, then stand up to breathe.

What you need to know at this point is that it is completely ok to have water touching your nostrils or even having some water getting into your nostrils, as long as you are holding your breath and your head is upright. Essay Questions? Because of the way the thesis electric, nose connects with the essay, head, water can’t rise high enough in thesis fan, your nose to get into sinuses in that position. It’s only essay on gps when the water gets into the sinuses that it becomes unpleasant. Fan? In fact, once you’ll have become an experienced swimmer, you will have water flowing into and out of your nostrils each stroke cycle, without ever having water getting into your sinuses and questions with you barely noticing. Having some water in the nostrils is in fact ok.

Let’s get back to our exercises. Again hold your breath, then crouch down until your nose is under water, the water surface being between your nose and thesis electric your eyes. Essay Writing Form Of Art? Your ears should not be under water, so slightly tilt your head forward. Electric Fan? Again, notice how some water gets into your nostrils, but at the same time notice that it doesn’t rise very high in your nose and that because of on productivity in the workplace this it doesn’t hurt. Try to hold this position a few seconds, then stand up to breathe. Hold your breath. Slowly crouch down as before. Now tilt your head slightly backwards. Electric Fan? Slowly move down until your nose and your ears are below the water surface but your eyes are still above the water surface. Because you are holding your breath no water can get into your mouth and only a little bit of water gets into your nose. Sloan Essay? Notice how water gets into your ears and your hearing becomes muffled.

Again try to hold this position a few seconds before standing up. Now what you need to know at this point is that some water will get into your ears. But this is also ok because the electric fan, water will be prevented from essay on gps, going further by thesis the ear drum and will flow out essay african slave, of the ear as soon as you leave the thesis electric fan, water. Essay On Gps? So you can’t get hurt. Hold your breath. Now slowly crouch down and electric let the water cover your mouth, nose, ears and move further down up to the point where your eyes move below the water surface. As you are wearing swim goggles (hopefully good ones), water can’t get into essay questions, your eyes. Try to hold this position a few seconds, then stand up again and breathe. Once you are comfortable with your eyes below the thesis electric fan, water surface and can keep your eyes open, take the time to observe this strange world below the water surface that opens up to sloan questions, you. Once you are comfortable doing the thesis fan, previous exercise, you can add up the ante a little bit and do a bobbing motion, where you rhythmically submerge and gretchen essay emerge your head. Fan? This will get you used to having your head being submerged regularly, which will be useful later on when learning how to swim the popular swimming strokes.

Once you are comfortable having your head under water, the next step to essay on gps, overcome your fear of water is to electric fan, learn that it is possible to exhale in the water without getting water into your nose and mouth. The best exercise for this is to learn how to blow bubbles. Breathe in while standing in essay on gps, the shallow area of the pool and hold your breath. Then crouch down so that your mouth is thesis electric fan below the water surface but your nose is essay on gps still above the thesis, water surface. Slowly exhale through your mouth, blowing bubbles in the water. You will realize that as long as you do exhale, water can’t get into your mouth.

The same is true if you do hold your breath. Essay About Plastic? Stand up again to breathe in. Thesis Electric? Repeat the gretchen 11 minute, previous exercise but now crouch down so far that only your eyes are above the water surface while your nose and mouth are below the water surface. Keep your mouth shut and thesis electric fan now slowly blow bubbles through your nose. Again you will notice that water can’t get into your nose as long as you hold your breath or exhale. Stand up to breathe.

Repeat the previous exercise but now blow bubbles in the water through both your nose and mouth. Finally repeat the essay of the slave trade, previous exercise but with your head completely under water. You should now be comfortable getting your head under water and exhaling in the water. Congratulations! These are two big steps towards losing your fear of water. In the next part of this article, you will discover that it is in fact very easy to float in the water without much effort.

So head over to part 2 of this article to electric, continue reading. If you still struggle with your fear even after doing all the exercises described in this article, Conquer Your Fear of Water: An Innovative Self-Discovery Course in essays workplace, Swimming by thesis fan Melon Dash might be a good resource for essay on gps you (see below). The book aims to thesis electric, get you over your fear of water in of the african slave trade, 104 detailed steps. Each step is a mini-chapter in the book and can cover various things, such as relaxation strategies, writing about your beliefs or fears, floating exercises in the water, and so on. The book goes deeply into the psychological and physical aspects of going into the water, getting used to thesis electric, it and being able to relax. Highly recommended. There’s also a companion DVD available, called The Miracle Swimmer: Learn to Be in essays, Control in Water, Shallow and Deep and Prevent Panic (see below). I found this very interesting as I have just taken up swimming recently. A lot of good tips for me. Cheers!

Great advice. Thesis Electric? I am going to learn to swim. I have joined an workplace, aqua fit class, which is great for electric fan just getting in the water and getting used to how it feels. I will try these submersion exercises next week. This a great way to essays on productivity, start. I followed the steps but I believe still there is fear that needs to go off. Thesis Electric Fan? All the exercises that are mentioned here are performed near the pool side. So there is the safe feeling of the pool side. I guess one starting should be to start in the middle of the shallow lane. This way we are fully surrounded by water which might help. I am going to try it.

Will post any developments here. Hello dear friend. I read your article and I feel we have similar swimming problems. I am terrified of leaving my kick board and taking off from the wall. Did you overcome your fear? Are you swimming now? A very nice article indeed. I started taking a 15 day swimming course recently.

I am hydrophobic and gretchen 11 minute could not keep my head inside the water while learning to swim. My coach and everybody else demotivated me that since I have a fear of water I can’t learn to swim in 15 days. This has disappointed me so much that I wanted to thesis, read articles on 11 minute essay how to thesis fan, overcome my fear of water. This article has done so good to me. Now I too feel I can do it with the about surgery, right spirit and mindset. Hydrophobia is the fear of fan drowning, fear to go to the water and sloan essay a negative attitude to bathing. This can cause a lot of inconveniences because one has frequent contacts with water in life. Hydrophobia is common among those who can not swim.

The signs of thesis hydrophobia is the fear to be near water and to essays workplace, swim in it. People experiencing hydrophobia may even panic when drops of thesis electric water fall on them accidentally. For more info about gretchen essay, hydrophobia please visit this page. Hydrophobia is also the fan, ancient name of rabies. I also have Hydrophobia. Plastic? I want to learn to swim but I’m just too scared. It’s because I nearly drowned once, because I was to small and couldn’t reach the floor :/

Like you I nearly drowned as a child, only it happened to me twice. Since then I have had a real fear of water. I have been able to stand in a pool – only up to my waist, but that was the limit for me. I have never been able to thesis fan, put my face near water and even worse, was petrified to try and of the african slave lie on my back – even in very very shallow water. Now I am 68 and recently saw a poster for adult swimming classes for total beginners.

I decided to try. I explained that I was afraid of water and why. In the electric fan, first lesson I was able to essay on gps, lie on electric my tummy holding a swim aid and bernabei essay learned to float on electric my back. I was so excited I have been to the pool on my own twice now when no one else was around and spend lots of time floating on my back – in shallow water but at least I can do it. The difference for me was that the first thing we were taught was how to stand up both from front and back positions. For me that was the best – knowing that at any time I could stand without kicking and essay writing as a form of art spluttering.

Find a good teacher – one with patience and understanding and have a go. If I can – anyone can. I have recently started learning swimming. Electric? But when I do gliding and reach the middle of the pool I feel scared and lose my balance. What should I do? Please help me. The coach is only interested to essay on gps, teach students who are doing gliding perfectly and myself along with two other girls are like clueless how to get that confidence. It is unfortunate that you have coach available but that he/she is only interested in teaching students that are already quite confident in the water.

Maybe it would help to discuss this topic with him/her? Is this a sports coach interested in thesis electric fan, swim competitions and gretchen bernabei looking for new talents or a coach interested in teaching students how to thesis, swim? Another option would be to do the exercises I propose on essay on gps this page on thesis fan your own, in a public swimming pool, assisted by a friend who is essay on gps a good swimmer. Hope this helps. Just reading about trying the electric fan, exercises to put my face in the water caused me to panic and get stressed. Mind you, I have no problem getting in the water even having it up to my chin as long as I can stand. Or snorkeling in the ocean with my life jacket on… granted it takes some deep breaths to the mask will keep water out of my nose and I can still breath. I have even held my breath and put my face under the shower for a few seconds. But, still the thought of sloan essay putting my face in a pool or body of water without at least a snorkel mask and preferably snorkel causes me to hyperventilate and just about to cry. I would like to even just learn how to float on my back.

Is there any hope for a person like me? I fear that even a swim class geared to electric fan, a person afraid of the sloan essay, water will not work for me. How is it if you wear swimming goggles? Are you also afraid? When getting ready to snorkel, with a breathing tube, it still takes me a few moments to put my face in the water. Even knowing that I will be able to breath, there is still a panic in me that I have to calm. I have not been able to just put my face in thesis, the water wearing a snorkel mask alone and definitely not with just swimming goggles on. A progression you could try is the following: * Using a snorkel mask and a breathing tube, get to on the impolicy of the trade, the point where you can breathe calmly with the head under water.

* Once you can breathe calmly, still using the electric fan, mask and breathing tube, try to hold your breath under water for essay on gps 2 seconds, then begin to breathe again. * Repeat a few times. * Continue with holding you breath using the mask and tube, and try to increase the breath holding time up to say 10 seconds. * Now remove the breathing tube, still wearing the mask, take a breath, close your mouth, and try to slowly get your closed mouth under water, then immediately get your mouth above the fan, water surface again. It may take a while until you can do this. Notice that as long as you keep your mouth closed, no water can get in. * Repeat the same procedure, but try to keep your mouth under water for more seconds, still holding your breath.

Try to progressively get up to 10 seconds. * Now do the same but try to get your head completely under water, closing your mouth and holding your breath, still wearing the mask. * Once you can do this, get swimming goggles, a nose clip and questions a swimmer’s snorkel. * Put the gear on, and notice how you can breathe through the snorkel, your eyes are covered and your nose is sealed by the clip. Essentially, the swimming gear provides the thesis electric, same protection as the snorkel mask and breathing tube. * Slowly get your head under water and breathe through the snorkel.

Notice that no water gets in as you are using a nose clip and essays on productivity in the workplace snorkel, and you can breathe normally. * Repeat the same exercises as above: * Hold your breath under water, still using the snorkel, and progressively increase the breath holding time. * Once you are comfortable doing this, remove the snorkel, and try to get your mouth under water, holding your breath. * Progressively increase the breath holding time to 10 seconds. Once you can do this, you can try to do the other exercises on this page, such as blowing bubbles, etc. Good luck. Hi I’m about 6 stone over weight and have tried swimming. I’m not very good at fan, swimming and I’m terrified to put my head under. So after 3 visits starting at 10 lengths then 15 then 20 but now my back is in agony. Sloan Questions? Help.

If you are always arching your back or neck to keep the head above water, it could explain why you are experiencing back/neck pain. Before doing lots of laps, I’d really focus on fan getting comfortable in english essay about surgery, the water, doing the exercises I describe on this page and thesis electric fan maybe also from the resources I recommend at the bottom of the slave, article. Ok, I will attempt to give that suggestion a try. Fan? Thanks. Is there a big difference between a “swimmers snorkel” and a regular snorkel setup? I have never heard of it before. I will have to do research on it. Here’s a review of a swimmer’s snorkel made by Finis: This page was a really good find. Sloan Essay? When I was at thesis electric, school, the swimming instructor was only interested in on the african slave trade, the the pupils that could swim, those that couldn’t were left on their own in the shallow end with floats, no instructions or encouragement to learn how to actually swim and deal with the different aspects of the water. Over the years I’ve taught myself to clumsily get from one side of the pool to the other and tread water but if my head goes under the water I always seem to swallow water and end up looking ridiculous while I’m coughing and reaching.

These tips seem really good advice and I will definitely try them and I look forward to swimming under water and then even move on to diving! Thank you, Martin. I am 50 and trying to thesis electric, swim, now I can do the torpedo but cannot stand up unless I slightly touch the will or rope or someone’s fingers, I have been practicing to english essay about plastic surgery, stand for last the five days and I am not able to thesis electric fan, do so. I am more or less in essay, a similar situation. It’s probably a combination between the first and thesis electric the last cause that you mentioned in your article. Recently I’ve started taking swimming classes. I was OK at the beginning, I could submerge my head into 11 minute, the water with breathing/exhaling, etc. from the very first class. Anyway, after a while, when the coach asked me to swim without any support, I’ve started to panic once I was in the middle of the pool, losing my balance and all. The other girl who comes with me already knew how to swim, she only came to improve her technique. Thesis Fan? She’s very confident in water and somehow the coach is expecting me to do what she does, insisting that I already can.

But I’m not so confident to swim without any support and writing form I feel very scared once I’m all alone in the middle of the thesis, pool, I swim to that point and on productivity then I just feel like I’m losing all my strength and sinking, I can’t stand up nor breathe. I don’t know how and if I can overcome this fear – which I didn’t have before! The pool is 2 meters deep and it really scares me. I think you need to talk to your coach. The swim lessons are decreasing your confidence instead of increasing it. I think you need to build confidence and learn to swim without support in shallow water first, where you can get back on thesis electric your feet at essay questions, any time. One can swim very well in fan, water that is essay writing form of art 1 – 1.2 meter (3-4 feet) deep.

No need to thesis, rush to the deep water if it scares you. Thank you for addressing this issue that many people face. I have been trying to learn to swim since February this year and am making incredibly slow progress. Of The African Trade? My issue is that I can’t let go and trust the water to support me; I feel like I need to be in control all the time, which means holding onto something whether that’s the wall or the float. I can at least now get into the water without a fuss, and feel increasingly more comfortable as the water gets deeper, but I’ll still only go half way (“No non swimmers beyond this point”) I can occasionally glide if someone is fan ahead of me, but floating on my back terrifies me. Have you come across this before? I am fine with my face submerged and actually like being underwater, looking around! Actually I think you are doing fine and are making good progress.

Getting the confidence to get one’s head submerged often is a big thing. And you are enjoying it, being able to see the world that opens up below the water surface ;-). You really don’t need to go to essay on the impolicy of the slave, the deep end right now, in my opinion. Electric? I’d focus on gaining experience in the shallow end, developing your skills, having fun, and later learning a swim stroke when the sloan essay questions, time is right, etc. This is not a race. Now I can actually understand that you are terrified of floating on your back. You actually don’t see what is fan going on essay on gps in front of you or below you, AND you also need to have excellent balance to keep your body aligned and your face above water. As always, swim goggles and thesis electric fan a nose clip will protect your eyes and sloan questions your nose from the water, so I’d absolutely use that when you are learning to float on your back. Having someone walking ahead of you is also a good idea, so you will not have to be afraid of crashing into someone (please take note for thesis later that other swimmers will notice that you are on your back and will automatically swim around you).

Lastly, did you see the following article: Learn The Flutter Kick In Backstroke. It describes a few exercises you can do to learn balance while floating on essay on the impolicy of the slave trade your back, while holding onto the edge of the wall, so there is no risk of you crashing into someone else or something like that. I hope these few tips will be helpful. Thank you! I’ll keep trying.

Feels like a long journey.

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Electric fan thesis

Specifications for Thesis Preparation. This entire document can be read from beginning to end or particular sections can be quickly referenced by using the table of contents. This guide has been prepared by thesis electric fan, the MIT Libraries, as prescribed by the Committee on Graduate Programs, to assist students and faculty in the preparation of theses. The Institute is committed to the preservation of essay on gps each student's thesis because it is both a requirement for the MIT degree and a record of original research that contains information of lasting value. The requirements in this guide apply to all theses and have been specified both to facilitate the care and dissemination of the thesis and to electric assure the preservation of the essay on the african archival paper copy. Individual departments may dictate more stringent requirements. Questions not answered in this guide should be referred to the appropriate department officer or to the MIT Libraries (14N-118, mit-theses@mit.edu, 617-253-5136). The academic department is required to electric deliver the proper number of essay on gps copies of the thesis to the MIT Libraries within one month after the last day of the term in which the electric fan thesis was submitted (Faculty Regulation 2.72). One copy is kept as part of the on productivity workplace permanent archival collection, and the other copy is reserved for fan future disposition.

An online catalog record, which includes the thesis abstract, is prepared for all theses deposited in the MIT Libraries. This information appears in Barton, our online catalog, which is accessible to english essay plastic surgery researchers at other institutions through the Internet, as well as in the OCLC database WorldCat, an online international bibliographic system available to libraries and thesis individuals worldwide. PhD and ScD theses are also listed (with abstract) in ProQuest Dissertations Theses database ( PQDT ) and Dissertation Abstracts International ( DAI ). For each thesis received by the Libraries, a digital version is created and made publicly available in DSpace@MIT (http://libraries.mit.edu/mit-theses). Copies of theses may be obtained through the impolicy of the african slave MIT Libraries' Document Services (14-0551, 617-253-5668; docs@mit.edu; http://libraries.mit.edu/docs/). Students may choose to submit a born-digital PDF of the thesis via the thesis electric Libraries voluntary submission portal (http://thesis-dropbox.mit.edu/vireo/start). Essay On Gps! However, the electronic version is not considered to fan be the official copy.

Degree candidates must submit the required copies of their theses to the appropriate office of the department or program in which they are registered on the dates specified in the Academic Calendar. The Academic Calendar may be found in the MIT Bulletin and at http://web.mit.edu/registrar/www/calendar.html. September, February, and June are the essays in the only months in which degrees are awarded. Additional copies of the thesis may be required by thesis electric, the department. All theses should be turned in to the appropriate departmental office; the office will deliver the theses to the MIT Libraries within a month after the last day of term. In this guide, the copy that remains in the Archives is called the first copy . Bernabei! Additional copies required for the divisional libraries (see following section) are referred to as the second and thesis fan (possibly) third copies . The department may ask for on the impolicy african slave trade copies in thesis fan, addition to those required for the Libraries. On Productivity In The Workplace! The student may, of course, keep personal copies. Not all departments send bachelor's theses to the Archives.

If your department does, only one copy should be submitted to the Archives. Thesis Electric! Please check the requirements of your department. Undergraduate students do not pay a library processing fee. Number of copies: Normally, two copies are required for the Libraries Ђ“ one for in the the Archives and a second for the appropriate divisional library. A third copy is required only when a student is submitting the thesis same thesis to departments or programs from essay on gps, two separate MIT schools (e.g., Management and Engineering). If the departments are in the same school (e.g., Engineering Systems and Mechanical Engineering), only two copies are required. Thesis Fan! Doctoral theses only: A completed UMI/ProQuest form (see section below) with an additional copy of the title page and abstract stapled to it is on the impolicy african slave trade also required.

Most MIT theses are written by a single author. In those cases where two or more students are responsible, only a single copy (for undergraduates) or set of copies (for graduate students) should be submitted to the Archives. The title page of the thesis should bear the signatures of all authors and thesis supervisors. (Permission to undertake collaborative thesis research must be obtained in advance from the Dean of Graduate Education [3-138, 617-253-4860, http://odge.mit.edu/gpp/degrees/thesis/joint-theses). Submission of Doctoral Thesis Abstract to International Database: UMI/ ProQuest Dissertations Theses Database. Abstracts of all doctoral theses (PhD and thesis ScD) will be submitted for inclusion in ProQuest Dissertations Theses , an online database used by researchers around the world. PQDT can be searched by essay on gps, author name, subject terms, and all words in the title and abstract. All MIT abstracts will contain a note stating that copies of the fan full text are available from DSpace@MIT or the MIT Libraries' Document Services.

Abstracts should be no longer than 350 words; longer abstracts will be edited by UMI/ProQuest. Please complete the UMI/ProQuest form at http://libraries.mit.edu/archives/thesis-specs/images/umi-proquest-form.pdf, staple it to a copy of your title page and abstract, and submit it with your thesis. The form may printed and completed by hand or opened and filled out in Acrobat Reader, then printed. When filling out the form, choose the appropriate subject categories from the list provided with the questions form. Please take care both in choosing terms and writing them (if filling out the form by hand). Subject-based access to your thesis will depend on the accuracy of the information you provide and electric the precision with which it is transcribed by UMI/ProQuest. It is especially important that your name appear on this form exactly as it does on the title page and abstract of your thesis.

CHANGES AFTER SUBMISSION OF THESIS. All change made to a thesis, after the thesis has been submitted to the MIT Libraries by the student's department, must have prior approval from the Dean of Graduate or Undergraduate Education. When the purpose is to correct significant errors in content, the student should create an errata sheet using the form and instructions at http://libraries.mit.edu/archives/thesis-specs/images/errata-sheet.pdf and obtain approval from both thesis supervisor or program chair and the Dean for essay about Graduate or Undergraduate Education. If the thesis purpose of change is to excise classified, proprietary, or confidential information, the student should fill out the application form at gretchen bernabei essay http://libraries.mit.edu/archives/thesis-specs/images/page-substitution.pdf and have the request approved by the thesis supervisor or program chair and the Dean for Graduate or Undergraduate Education. Students and thesis electric supervisors should vet thesis content carefully before submission to avoid both scenarios whenever possible.

Students receiving advanced degrees from MIT are required to pay a library processing fee: $115.00 for a doctoral thesis ($50 for processing and $65 for the UMI/ProQuest abstract fee) and $50.00 for all other advanced-degree theses. Undergraduate students do not pay a processing fee. Thesis charges are billed to the studentЂ™s account when the thesis title is entered on the degree application. Please refer to the academic calendar on the RegistrarЂ™s website to english essay plastic surgery review relevant deadline dates. All copies must be submitted to the studentЂ™s department unbound between cardboard covers; the thesis thesis and covers should be clipped or tied together, NOT stapled or punched. Recycled temporary covers and of the african slave binder clips are available in thesis electric, a cabinet in the first floor stairwell of Hayden Library, near the circulation desk. The front cover should be labeled with the following information: author's name, thesis title, course, month and essay about plastic year of graduation, and which copy it is (first, second, or third).

The MIT Libraries pay for electric fan the binding of theses retained in their collection. Personal copies may be bound in hard or soft cover at MIT CopyTech or many commercial binderies in the Boston area. The Institute's policy concerning ownership of thesis copyright is covered in Rules and Regulations of the Faculty , 2.73. (http://web.mit.edu/faculty/governance/rules/2.70.html) and MIT Policies and Procedures 13.1.3 (http://web.mit.edu/policies/13/13.1.html#sub3). The following are guidelines to assist the student in determining who holds ownership of the thesis copyright: The Institute will hold ownership of the copyrights to theses if: the thesis research is performed in essays in the workplace, whole or in part by the student with financial support in the form of wages, salary, stipend, or grant from thesis electric, funds administered by the Institute. the thesis research is performed in whole or in essay questions, part utilizing equipment or facilities provided to the Institute under conditions that impose copyright restrictions.. In general, students may retain ownership of thesis copyrights when the only form of support is (a) teaching assistantships (the duties of thesis fan which do not include research activities) and essays workplace (b) NSF and NIH traineeships and fellowships (although the electric trainee or fellow may be required to essay slave trade grant certain publishing rights to thesis NSF or NIH).

Actual determination of a student's status is as a made by fan, reference to the account from which the student receives support. Questions regarding restrictions imposed on any of the Institute's facilities or equipment may be addressed to the administrative officer of the laboratory or department or to the appropriate contract administrator in the Office of Sponsored Programs (http://osp.mit.edu/). Specific questions on workplace permission to thesis electric fan copyright should be referred to sloan questions the Technology Licensing Office (617-253-6966, tlo@mit.edu). When copyright ownership is held by the student, the student must, as condition of a degree award, grant royalty-free permission to the Institute to reproduce and publicly distribute copies of the electric fan thesis, and must place the following legend on the thesis title page: The author hereby grants to MIT permission to reproduce and to distribute publicly paper and electronic copies of this thesis document in whole or in part in any medium now known or hereafter created. For such theses, requests for permission to use portions of the thesis in third-party publications must be addressed to and granted by the student author. When copyright is held by the Institute, students and third parties should contact the MIT Technology Licensing Office (617-253-6966, tlo@mit.edu) to essay form obtain permission to reuse thesis content in other publications. However, the student is authorized to thesis post electronic versions of the studentЂ™s own thesis, in whole or in part, on essay on the of the african trade the World Wide Web. Any further publication of the thesis in whole or in part shall be made only with the authorization of the electric Technology Licensing Office, in consultation with the head of the department or course in which the student was registered when the thesis was accepted. Regardless of whether copyright is held by the student or the Institute, the MIT Libraries publish the thesis electronically in DSpace@MIT (http://dspace.mit.edu) allowing open access viewing and of the african trade limited downloading/ printing. Students may request a waiver of Institute copyright by electric, written application to the Institute's Technology Licensing Office (http://tlo.mit.edu/). The waiver shall be granted only if the retained rights of the essay student as described in thesis, this guide are inadequate for the studentЂ™s needs and sloan essay if a license from the Institute to the student would also be inadequate.

Any such waiver of the thesis InstituteЂ™s copyright shall be subject to writing form of art a royalty-free grant from the student to the Institute to publicly distribute copies of the thesis thesis, in whole or in part. The student must also place the legend above on essay the thesis title page. Implementation: How to Copyright a Thesis. Each student should place the appropriate copyright notice on the thesis. Copyright notice consists of four elements: the symbol c with a circle around it © and/or the word copyright, the year of publication (the year in which the electric degree is to be awarded), the name of the copyright owner, and the words All rights reserved. These four elements should appear together on the title page (or verso of the title page). student is copyright owner: © 2008 Jane Doe. All rights reserved. Institute is copyright owner: © 2008 Massachusetts Institute of Technology. All rights reserved.

See sample title pages. Bernabei! A copyright notice should also appear on any non-paper material (e.g., DVD or CD) included with a thesis. Use of Previously Published Material in a Thesis. Each student is responsible for obtaining permission, if necessary, to include previously published material in thesis, the thesis. This applies to as a form of art most third-party materials (i.e., those created and published by fan, someone else); it may also apply to the studentЂ™s own previous work. If, for example, a student has already published part of the essay on the of the slave trade thesis as a journal article and, as a condition of publication, has assigned title to the journal's publisher, the student has no further rights in thesis electric fan, the article. Written permission must be obtained from the publisher to include the article, or any portion of it, in the thesis. Similarly, permission must be obtained to include papers written while the student was employed by a commercial company or non-profit organization if title belongs to the company or organization. A sample permission letter can be obtained from the essay on gps Office of the General Counsel (https://ogc.mit.edu/frequently-asked-questions). If the thesis electric fan student knows, prior to publication or employment, that such material will be included in a thesis, he or she may wish to retain title to the material or to reserve sufficient rights to on productivity in the workplace use the material.

Further information is available at Scholarly Publishing @MIT Libraries (http://libraries.mit.edu/scholarly/) or by contacting copyright-lib@mit.edu for more information. POLICY FOR TEMPORARY RESTRICTIONS ON THE DISTRIBUTION OF THESES. Thesis research should be undertaken in light of MIT's policy of open research and the free interchange of information. Written notification of patent holds and other restrictions must reach the Institute Archives before the electric thesis in question is received, since under normal circumstances all theses are open and available for public inspection once they have been received by the Archives. When there is good reason for delaying the bernabei distribution of fan a thesis, the procedures below should be followed. For additional details on essay writing as a form procedures for temporary restrictions, please see Graduate Policies and Procedures at http://odge.mit.edu/gpp/degrees/thesis/restrictions-on-thesis-publication/. When MIT holds the thesis electric fan rights to any intellectual property contained in a thesis, students and their supervisors must work with the MIT Technology Licensing Office (http://web.mit.edu/tlo/www/) to determine if a patent application is to as a form be filed. If so, the Technology Licensing Office will notify the Institute Archives, and the thesis will be withheld from distribution for thesis fan up to three months. If an extension is required, application must be made to about the Vice President for Research, who will inform the fan Archives if an extension is approved. When a student holds the rights to any intellectual property contained in his or her thesis, application for permission to withhold a thesis must be made to the Dean for Graduate Education for graduate theses or the Dean for Undergraduate Education for undergraduate theses.

If the hold is granted, the dean will inform the Archives, and the thesis will be withheld for a period of three months. On The African Trade! If an fan, extension is gretchen 11 minute essay required, application must be made to the Vice President for Research. A student should not embark without prior approval on a thesis that requires government restrictions. The Institute recognizes that certain government agencies which sponsor research may require that theses be submitted for security review before they can be placed in the Libraries or published. Occasionally, on completing a thesis, a student may believe that its distribution will jeopardize the privacy or safety of the author, other individuals, or organizations.

If the thesis cannot be rewritten to remove the problematic material, the author and supervisor should submit the thesis to fan the director of the program, who will prepare a recommendation for the Dean for Graduate Education for graduate theses or the Dean for Undergraduate Education for undergraduate theses, who will then consult with the essay on the Vice President for Research. The appropriate office will advise the Institute Archives of the restricted period. In all cases the restricted period should be kept to a minimum. The title page is always considered to electric fan be page 1, and every page must be included in the count regardless of whether a number is physically printed on a page. The entire thesis (including title page, prefatory material, illustrations, and all text and appendices) must be paginated in one consecutive numbering sequence. Theses should be prepared double-sided whenever possible. In a double-sided thesis, both sides of every page (starting with the title page and essay questions including any pages that have been left blank) must be accounted for in the numbering sequence. Therefore, in fan, a double-sided thesis, odd-numbered pages are always on the right and even-numbered pages on the left.

Pages with illustrations may be single-sided, but both sides should be counted. Single-sided theses should be numbered only on the front of every sheet. When using thesis templates on Athena, use caution and verify that the pagination requirements are being met. Your work will be a more valuable research tool for other scholars if it can be located easily. Search engines use the words in english plastic surgery, the title, and electric fan sometimes other descriptive words, to locate works.

Therefore, be sure to select a title that is a meaningful description of the content of your manuscript; and sloan essay questions when possible, use word substitutes for formulas, symbols, superscripts, Greek letters, etc., which do not appear on most computer keyboards and would make your title more difficult to search. The Effects of Ion Implantation and Annealing on the Properties of Titanium Silicide [not TiSi 2 ] Films on Silicon Substrates Radiative Decays of the J/Psi [not J/ ψ] to Two Pseudoscalar Final States The title page of the first copy must bear the original signatures of the author, supervisor, and chairman; a photocopy of the signed title page is acceptable for the second copy. The title page should contain the title, name of the author, previous degrees, the electric degree(s) to be awarded at MIT, the date the degree(s) will be conferred (June, September, or February only), copyright notice, and appropriate names and signatures.

For candidates receiving two degrees, both degrees to be awarded should appear on the title page. Surgery! For candidates receiving degrees across departments or programs, all degrees and departments or programs should appear on the title page and the signatures of electric both department heads/committee chairmen are required. Whenever there are co-supervisors, both signatures are required. Each thesis offered for a graduate degree must include an abstract, preferably one single-spaced page, but never more than two pages (generally less than 350 words). The abstract should be thought of as a brief descriptive summary rather than a lengthy introduction to the thesis.

Doctoral abstracts are submitted for inclusion in on productivity, UMI/ProQuestЂ™s Dissertation Abstracts International and ProQuest Dissertations Theses database ( PQDT ). Doctoral candidates should keep their abstracts under 350 words. Longer abstracts will be edited and thesis electric fan shortened by UMI/ProQuest . Databases such as PQDT provide full-text searching of abstracts, so the presence of significant key words in a short abstract will facilitate access. The abstract should immediately follow the title page. Biographical Note and Acknowledgment. Although not a requirement, each thesis may contain a short biography of the candidate, including institutions attended and dates of attendance, degrees and honors, titles of publications, teaching and professional experience, and other matters that may be pertinent.

An acknowledgment page may also be included. These sections may be single-spaced. Please note that your thesis will be publicly available online at DSpace@MIT, which is regularly crawled and indexed by essay on gps, Google and other search-engine providers.. The style of quotations, footnotes, and bibliographic references may be prescribed by your department. If your department does not prescribe a style or specify a style manual, choose one and be consistent. Further information is available on the web site of the thesis MIT Writing Center (http://cmsw.mit.edu/writing-and-communication-center/citation-formats/). NOTES AND BIBLIOGRAPHIC REFERENCES. Whenever possible, notes should be placed at the bottom of the appropriate page or in the body of the in the text. Thesis Electric! Notes should conform to the style appropriate to the discipline. If notes appear at the bottom of the page, they should be single-spaced and included within the english plastic specified margins (see section below).

It may be appropriate to place bibliographic references either at the end of the chapter in which they occur or at the end of the thesis.. The same paper size and quality, pagination, margins, notes, and illustration requirements apply to appendices. They support the research in your thesis and electric should be as readable and reproducible as the rest of your work. Page numbering should continue the consecutive pagination of the thesis. For the main body of the text, including appendices and front matter, font size should be at least 11-point and should not be script or italic. Italics may, however, be used for short quotations or to essay on gps highlight variables in an equation, for thesis electric example. Essays On Productivity In The! Notes and the text in tables, etc., should not be smaller than 10-point. Top, bottom, and both side margins must be at least an inch wide (1) to allow for binding and electric trimming. All information (text headings, notes, and illustrations), excluding page numbers , must be within the text area. Theses should be prepared using both sides of the paper (double-sided) whenever possible. Oversize sheets must be folded to come within the gretchen bernabei 11 minute text area so the folds will not be trimmed off or bound in fan, during the binding procedure.

The text of the english essay plastic surgery thesis may be single- double- or one-and-a-half-spaced. The abstract, biography, notes, bibliography, and acknowledgment should be single-spaced. If you are writing your thesis on electric Athena, follow the formatting and typeface instructions under the LATEX or FRAME olc stock answer topics by typing the command olc_answers on any Athena workstation. If you are preparing your thesis on Athena, follow the instructions under the LATEX or FRAME olc stock answer topics by typing the command olc_answers. When using Athena templates, be sure the format conforms to the required specifications, especially for sloan essay the title page and pagination. Final copies should be printed on the printer Thesis (11-004), which is stocked with acid-neutral, Libraries-approved thesis paper. First copy: For the thesis fan first copy the paper must be chosen for its permanence and durability. This is the copy that should bear the original signatures. The paper must be (a) acidЂ‘neutral or acid-free, (b) watermarked, (c) at least 20-lb. Writing As A! weight, and (d) contain at thesis least 25% cotton.

It may contain some post-consumer waste (pcw) recycled material. The following 20Ђ‘lb. On The Impolicy Of The African Slave! watermarked acidЂ‘neutral papers are examples of those that are acceptable. Mohawk Via Bright White (available at CopyTech, 11-004) Xerox Image Elite Crane's Thesis Paper Hammermill Bond Strathmore Bond. Second copy: The paper for the second copy should be (a) acid-neutral or acid-free, (b) at least 20-lb. weight, and (c) contain 25% cotton. It need not be watermarked. The following are not acceptable for either copy: MIT bond, erasable paper, or regular paper from thesis electric, photocopy machines. The paper used should be sufficiently opaque so that text and illustrations on one side do not impair readability on the other. If there are any questions about the acceptability of paper, contact the gretchen 11 minute Institute Archives (mit-theses@mit.edu, 617-253-5136). The standard size for theses is 8Ѕ by 11 inches (see section on thesis fan oversized pages).

DOUBLE-SIDED OR SINGLE-SIDED PRINTING. Double-sided printing is strongly recommended. However, the paper should be sufficiently opaque so that text and illustrations on about plastic surgery one side do not impair readability on the other side. A single-sided illustration page in a double-sided thesis should be numbered on both sides. When creating a double-sided copy, be sure that the fan page numbers are either in the center or on the outside edge of each page. Charts, graphs, tables, etc., should be reduced whenever possible to gretchen essay an 8Ѕ-by-11-inch format. If material is electric fan not reducible, oversize sheets must be folded to sloan essay come within the text area so the folds will not be trimmed off or bound in during the binding procedure. Acceptable 11-by-17-inch watermarked paper can be requested at CopyTech (11-004). Students may print their theses in full color. Theses containing color figures, illustrations, and photos will be scanned in color and converted to color PDFs for inclusion in DSpace@MIT. Please be aware that heavily saturated color graphics may Ђњbleed throughЂќ and fan compromise legibility for double-sided pages.

In such cases, use of single-sided printing or heavier, less transparent paper stock is advised.. Pages containing photographs should be numbered as regular pages. A single-sided photograph page in essay on the african, a double-sided thesis should be numbered on both sides. All graphics must respect the 1Ђќ margins. Digital and electric fan magnetic materials such as cassette tapes, CDs, and DVDs may accompany the sloan questions written text of the thesis; one should accompany each copy of the thesis submitted . No guarantee can be given that the Libraries can preserve, reproduce, or make this information available in the future.

Therefore, when feasible, the information that is in these forms should also be represented in electric, the written text of the thesis. A label containing the author's name, the questions date of the thesis, and the copyright notice must be applied to all material in non-paper format. The label should also include any relevant technical information, such as software or hardware specifications. Is the authorЂ™s full name on the title page and the abstract? (See sections on title page and abstract.) Before submitting to your department. Are all necessary signatures on the title page of each copy? (See section on title page ) Institute Archives and Special Collections. Technology Licensing Office.

One Cambridge Center. Cambridge, MA 02142. Office of the fan General Counsel. Office of the Dean for Graduate Education. Dean for Undergraduate Education. Office of the essay about plastic Vice President for Research.

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Americanization in Denmark Essay Sample. The American language is today one of the most popular spoken language worldwide. With only Chinese being superior to the American language, it is no wonder why the thesis electric fan, language, culture and gretchen essay, fashion has rapidly sneaked up on Denmark, and has started to affect the native languages of the country. We hear or read words and songs from America every day. It could be a song playing in the radio, or a label on a dishwasher, and we don’t even think about it being American. A Danish writer called Dan Turell once said when he was talking about his youth and the changes in the Danish community, “USA was like the thesis, big brother of Denmark”. English. Globalization is also a hot subject when talking about the Americanization.

What are the threats and possibilities that globalization holds for us and the rest of the fan, world? Easy communication all over the world is one aspect of globalization. This appears to be a good thing but many bad things can come out of it. Of course global trading and negotiating is essay on gps a good thing. China can share their knowledge and science with USA and thesis electric, vice versa. But terrorists can also exploit the global communication for example the nowadays pirates in Somalia. They can kidnap some Danes and essay questions, contact the Danish police or government and ask for a ransom. Globalization also leads to the world “shrinking”.

Cultures will be more alike because it is so easy to travel to the other side of the world and learn from other cultures, buy their food or items and thesis, adopt it in to bernabei essay your own culture. This can in worst case scenario end up with having a world that is the same no matter where you go. It doesn’t matter if you are in electric China or in Mexico. American words and sentences has for a long time, been adopted into the Danish language. At a young age the Danes learn English at elementary school. Therefore the language is accepted and known by a lot of Danes. The Danes use a lot of American words like fuck, download, Walkman and other words they don’t consider American because they have been in the Danish vocabulary for so long. The Danish culture is being Americanized not only by words and sentences but with songs too. As an example of this I have chosen the Danish pop-band Nephew’s song “Va Fangool!” – Which is an American slang for “fuck you” They start the song by singing in about plastic surgery Danish, but with a few grammatical mistakes. In the middle of the first verse they sing “you know what I mean” which isn’t Danish, but American.

They also sing the chorus and the whole second verse in American before they switch back to Danish in the last chorus, only to finish it off with some more American singing. When you hear the thesis electric fan, music you know that the in the workplace, American part is in another language, but you don’t think about because you know the language and you understand the phrases. In the music video, they show a fish called “Big Mouth Billy Bass” who is a fish that sings when you pass by it. It was very popular in Denmark in the late 1990s and early 2000s. The fish sang a few American songs like “Don’t worry, be happy” by Bobby McFerrin. The Danes started buying this “singing fish” and placed it in thesis electric fan their living rooms.

The song, along with the fish, shows clear signs of Americanization. And the essay on gps, directors making the videos all know too well what they are doing. And it’s no coincidence why they place the fish in electric the video. American music video makers are teaming up with makeup artist and a lot of sloan, other professionals to make their music videos appealing to the whole world. And the Danes pick up inspiration, fashion, and cultures from thesis, rap-artists, models and essay, sports stars. This also distributes to the Americanization in Denmark. The Danes start wearing “bling bling” (expensive shiny jewellery and watches) like the rap stars 50cent and Snoop Dogg do. They talk the electric, same slang and they look up to the stars. The Americanization has just started and we will begin to sloan essay see a lot more of this in the future. Already now it can be hard to tell the difference between an American teenager and a Danish teenager by fan, looking at on productivity in the workplace, their clothes and jewelry. The Americanization has been successful because USA working hard on expanding globally by promoting themselves.

Globalization is an odd thing, it fascinates me how there can be so big of a difference between the wealth and thesis, misery of different countries. Many people are afraid of globalization but I think we should embrace it and share the wealth all over the world to make it equal, to form peace and to distinguish poverty and misery. I don’t think any continent should have the ability, financial wise to essay questions dominate the world. Is this the perfect essay for you? Save time and order Americanization in Denmark. essay editing for only $13.9 per page. Top grades and thesis, quality guaranteed! Relevant essay suggestions for Americanization in Denmark. Even though the essay on the impolicy african slave, delegation of Denmark often poses without notice, it is undoubtedly a well­established and fan, wealthy country with unparalleled promise. In this summit dedicated to the militarization of outer#8230; The Americanization of Benjamin Franklin. When trying to read about history, sometimes it is easy to essay surgery misinterpret information and thesis, not realize certain motives or reasons that are behind historical events.

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essays at electric poc “Their Priority Is Not the People”: Civilian Views on Peace Operations in Africa. “Their priority is english essay plastic not the people of Somalia,” a Somali woman who had recently fled to the Dadaab refugee camp in Kenya said about peacekeepers in her home country. “It is the government and themselves.” Unfortunately, this view is not unique. Civilians in countries with peace operations often experience a wide gap between them and those missions. Yet, at thesis electric fan a time when peacekeeping is at a crossroads—again—and under increasing financial pressure, it is more important than ever to solicit and acknowledge the views of the citizens who are affected by writing of art peace operations. Thesis Electric Fan! Their suggestions on essays workplace how to bolster results should be taken into thesis, account in the ongoing debates about successes, failures, and costs of peace operations. However, despite an acceptance in questions the ever-quoted HIPPO report that “engaging with host countries and thesis electric fan local communities must increasingly be regarded as core to mission success” and despite the acceptance of protection of civilians as a core norm for UN peacekeeping, realities on the ground demonstrate that too little has been done to access or include these voices. Between October 2015 and April 2017, International Refugees Rights Initiative (IRRI) conducted close to 200 interviews with civilians in South Sudan, Sudan (Darfur) and Somalia about how they perceive the peace operations in essay their countries. The three missions in thesis fan those countries, all of sloan essay, which are mandated by the UN Security Council, embody the range of different options available to implement the strategic partnership between the African Union and the UN, from a fully-fledged UN mission in South Sudan (UNMISS), to a joint AU-UN mission in Darfur (UNAMID) and an AU-operated mission in fan Somalia (AMISOM). While all three operate in significantly different contexts, they all have “little peace to keep” and have been often criticized for their limitations in essay on gps implementing their mandate, especially when it comes to the protection of civilians. All three missions have also been reviewed this year.

UNAMID has been restructured and its troop numbers have been seriously reduced; the UN and AU have just concluded a joint review of AMISOM and strengthened the focus in its mandate on thesis fan withdrawal and handover to Somali security forces. UNMISS faces some minor budget cuts and a review, even as reinforcement by on the impolicy of the african slave trade a Regional Protection Force is slowly being implemented. While much of what was talked about by thesis electric the Somalis, South Sudanese, and Darfuris interviewed during the course of the research was specific to their context, a number of similarities and trends emerge from their responses, despite the strategic, operational, and contextual differences between the three missions. These trends are important, not only for any new rounds of gretchen essay, high-level policy debates, but also for electric fan, addressing the strategic challenges for protection of civilians and the rock-bottom popularity of peacekeepers among the writing as a form, civilians they are supposed to protect. A common conclusion when talking to citizens from these three countries is that they struggle to fully understand the mandate of the mission in their country. Most civilians only know the parts of the mandate that are most visible to them and overestimate its mandated ability to use force and to protect civilians. This lack of understanding means expectations often differ from reality and contributes substantially to the overall, primarily critical, views of the forces. In Somalia, most interviewees understood that AMISOM is supposed to fan fight the essays in the, Islamist armed group Al-Shabaab and protect government institutions. While this is indeed the core aspect of AMISOM’s mandate and fan activities, interviewees were not aware of its other tasks, such as securing humanitarian assistance and key supply routes, engaging with communities and receiving defecting Al-Shabaab members. Many Somalis criticised the mission for 11 minute, its failure to electric fan protect civilians even though this is not part of its mandate (although the AU has increasingly accepted, at least on a policy level, its responsibility to do so).

South Sudanese citizens interviewed about UNMISS thought that the blue helmets’ task was essentially limited to protecting what became known as protection of civilians (PoC) sites, the UN premises in which hundreds of thousands of displaced persons found (relative) protection and shelter when large-scale violence erupted in 2013. Originally, UNMISS’ mandate was broader, and while the mandate did indeed shift away from peacebuilding activities towards a larger focus on the protection of civilians following the violence and serious atrocities committed by both government and rebel forces in 2016, UNMISS has retained other responsibilities, including monitoring human rights, securing humanitarian assistance, and supporting the sloan essay questions, now almost defunct 2015 peace agreement. Furthermore, its protection of thesis electric fan, civilians mandate goes well beyond protecting displaced civilians in UN compounds and includes a wider package of tasks to provide protection to all civilians, with a use of force dynamic as well as through peaceful means. Yet many interviewees thought that UNMISS was not tasked to play any role outside the PoC sites. Likewise in Darfur, many interviewees were confused about UNAMID’s mandate. As one woman in essay about the Belil IDP camp said: “UNAMID is a hybrid force that is spread out in all IDP [internationally displaced persons] camps but without goals.” Many of those interviewed simplified UNAMID’s mandate to protecting IDPs and reporting about the situation. While these are certainly core parts of the mandate, UNAMID is thesis fan also responsible for restoring the security situation for humanitarian assistance and development, for more broadly “contributing to” civilian protection, and for assisting the gretchen bernabei essay, political process and rule of law. For all three missions, the limited civilian understanding of the mandates is shaped by two mutually reinforcing factors: a lack of interaction with the mission and the limited visibility of all of the mission’s priorities.

Firstly, most civilians rarely interact with the mission, despite its proximity. Language and cultural barriers, security risks, government interference, and a general unwillingness to engage with citizens were all cited, to varying levels, as hampering interaction. There have been all-too-limited results of the scarce efforts made by peacekeepers to conduct outreach towards citizens and explain what they were doing, or to assign such tasks to dedicated personnel who speak the local language. This gap has ramifications beyond the understanding of the mission’s mandate, as this interaction is seen as key for the mission to achieve its goals. As a Somali man in Mogadishu explained: “Instead of being suspicious of us, AMISOM should work with us. The population is the best ally. They [AMISOM] won't achieve anything without the support and thesis information of the population.” Secondly, due to them being poorly informed, citizens naturally align the mission’s mandate with what they see it doing: engaging Al-Shabaab and sloan essay protecting the government in Somalia, defending PoC sites in South Sudan, and protecting IDP camps and reporting in Darfur.

This can be because other parts of the mandate, such as support to peace processes and rule of law, are inherently less visible than the former tasks, but it can also give an idea about where missions’ priorities lay in practice—be it due to thesis electric fan limited capacity, strategic choices or lack of will by essay on gps the mission leadership, headquarters or troop-contributing countries. In some cases, people expressed frustration to IRRI that the mission in their country was not doing what they considered important, such as supporting the South Sudan peace deal or working with the Somali army, while in thesis fan fact this was—and still is—an inherent part of the mission’s mandate. The lack of understanding, therefore, not only negatively affects the assessment civilians make of the mission in their country and further contributes to the often-mentioned gap between what civilians expect and what a peace operation can deliver, but also points to some of the deficiencies inherent with the missions, which surpasses the shortcomings in communication (and are discussed in more detail below). The three cases studies show that a concerted effort has to be made by the missions to explain their mandates and in addition, ensure a realistic understanding of what aspects of essay on gps, their missions are achievable given the level of troops, budget, and political backing available. Independent of its mandate or capacity, a mission’s ability to provide protection, especially for civilians, is the main criteria on thesis fan which civilians in the three countries assess the mission’s results. Expectations are particularly high and results have therefore often been disappointing.

The three missions studied in this project have different protection mandates, ranging from essays in the, UNMISS, which on paper has a strong mandate to protect civilians; to UNAMID, which is mandated to “contribute” to the protection of civilians when civilians are under “imminent” threat; to AMISOM, which has no explicit reference to protection of civilians in its mandate, but has increasingly, on a policy level at least, accepted its responsibility to do so. In Somalia, citizens complained to IRRI that the mission’s primary focus was on the protection of fan, politicians and institutions—one of the primary tasks in the mandate—while overlooking the vital protection needs of the population. Many also complained that the essay writing of art, mission in fact exposed civilians to additional risks by losing towns to Al-Shabaab, followed by reprisal attacks by electric the armed group. In South Sudan, many interviewees appreciated the writing form, fact that the UN mission took a rapid decision in December 2013 to open their gates to people fleeing atrocities. Electric! As one PoC resident in gretchen bernabei 11 minute Juba said: “If it was not because of peacekeepers, all of us would have been killed.” At the thesis electric, same time, however, there was harsh criticism for the lack of essays on productivity, presence and protection outside of the UN compounds. (Similarly, in thesis fan Darfur, people appreciated the writing of art, protection offered by UNAMID in and around the IDP camps, but criticised the lack of ability and/or willingness to electric fan provide protection in more remote areas.) A UN investigation into impolicy of the trade, the July 2016 events—when heavy fighting erupted in the capital Juba as the 2015 peace agreement broke down, and which happened after IRRI’s research—confirmed UNMISS’ failure to electric fan respond to serious threats to civilians. The report cites a lack of leadership and unified command, as well as a risk-averse attitude, as factors in the “loss of trust and confidence—particularly by the local population and humanitarian agencies—in the impolicy african slave trade, will and skill of electric fan, UNMISS military, police to be proactive and show a determined posture to protect civilians under threat, including from sexual violence and human rights violations.” Following the report, the mission’s Kenyan commander was dismissed by the then-UN Secretary General Ban Ki-Moon. Many people mentioned the unintended consequences of the PoC sites on longer-term protection in South Sudan, such as isolation from information about the security situation outside the sites and the reinforcement of ethnic dimensions.

In Darfur and essay on gps Somalia, several respondents expressed their anger about abuses committed by fan the peacekeepers themselves, including sexual violence and incidents that resulted in the death of civilians, thereby seeing the mission as a source of insecurity instead of writing as a form of art, as a source of protection. Similar allegations have been published about peacekeepers in South Sudan. While there seems to be a growing awareness at UN Security Council and electric fan AU level of the gretchen 11 minute, importance for accountability mechanisms, including reparations, interviewees were often unaware of any investigations or accountability efforts, either because of the absence of such mechanisms in practice or because of poor effectiveness and/or communication about its functioning and results. Three general observations can be made about people’s perceptions of the protection of civilians in the three country situations. First, in all three cases, civilians recognized that peacekeepers have also experienced serious losses when their camps have been attacked.

Most saw this as a sign of commitment, but it also led them to thesis electric question the forces’ subsequent capacity to protect civilians. Essay On Gps! As one Darfuri man put it, “If they are not able to protect themselves, how could they protect civilians?” A dedicated effort should be made to include the voices of citizens in the strategy, design, and implementation of peace operations and recognize these citizens as essential agents for success. Second, civilians seem largely to equate “protection of civilians” with the mission’s ability to use force to deter and repel attacks on fan civilians, advocating most often for a stronger mandate to do so. Essay On Gps! However, in the cases studied by thesis fan IRRI, it is not just the essays workplace, mandate that prevents more robust responses but other factors, such as capacity, equipment, directives from the contingents’ capitals, or unclear guidance from mission leadership and thesis fan headquarters.

Third, even when the government is allegedly responsible for many abuses against civilians, as is the case in Darfur and essay on gps South Sudan, the government is still seen as the primary responsibility bearer for providing protection to electric fan civilians, a view in conformity with international standards such as the Responsibility to Protect, but at odds with realities on the ground. Based on this view, interviewees’ testimony seems to support an important role for the missions to engage politically with governments about their failure to provide protection, about the abuses they commit, and about restrictions to the mission’s functioning, thereby broadening the in the workplace, perception of protection of civilians beyond the use of force. While supporting those role, many criticized the mission for toeing the government line. Relations with the host government. In their assessment of the peace operations, civilians often take the thesis, relationship between the peace operation and the government into sloan essay, account as a primary factor.

There is a clear distinction between the situation in Somalia, where citizens criticize the government for its lack of capacity and action but attribute most violence to Al-Shabaab, and thesis electric fan South Sudan and Darfur, where the government is seen as a key instigator of violence and questions atrocities. In Somalia, many people favor their national forces over the AU peacekeepers, despite recognizing that the Somali national army struggles from serious shortcomings in terms of capacity, accountability, and inclusivity. Several Somalis interviewed by IRRI criticised the AU and other international actors for not sufficiently respecting, collaborating, and supporting the Somali security system—which they saw as their priority—and advocated for a quick handover of responsibility from AMISOM to the national forces. The latest renewal aligns the mandate with such views. In South Sudan and Darfur, on the other hand, the missions are criticized for thesis fan, their failure to challenge abuses by government forces, to provide protection in instances of government attacks, and to mitigate restrictions on their freedom of movement imposed by the government. This perceived failure seriously damages the image of the on the african trade, mission as a neutral actor capable of providing protection for all. In South Sudan, for instance, UNMISS was criticised during interviews for electric, not patrolling in opposition areas (allegedly because of the writing of art, government opposing this), for conducting common patrols with government forces, and for complying with restrictions at checkpoints instead of trying to negotiate or, if necessary, force passage. Electric! (Since the english essay plastic surgery, research was conducted and the UN recognized its shortcomings, there seems to have been an improvement of the latter element.) Likewise in Darfur, the mission was accused of covering up government attacks on its peacekeepers and the population, of accepting restricted access to several zones and the refusal by the government for the provision of visas to key UN staff members. “It makes it look like the government is in charge of UNAMID,” explained a woman living in Darfur.

Such observations also bear relevance for the debate about the electric fan, “key principles of peacekeeping,” consent of the essay impolicy of the african, parties, impartiality, and the non-use of thesis electric, force, except in self-defence or defence of the mandate. It was clear that civilians interviewed during this research disagree with the gretchen essay, continuous attempts by UNMISS and UNAMID to seek consent from the fan, host state for day-to-day operations. They are also wary of its lack of distance from the host state, especially given allegations of state responsibility for serious violations of impolicy african slave, international law and obstruction of the mission’s mandate. In the cases of South Sudan and Darfur, many civilians seem to support a more robust political role for the UN mission, at a national and local level, in electric order to prevent abuses, mediate conflicts, and reduce barriers to the missions’ functioning. “We need help to reconcile. We need mediators like UNMISS,” a displaced man from South Sudan said. Both missions have a mandate to work on such issues, for example by supporting the 2015 peace agreement in South Sudan or by assisting the political process and the reconstruction of rule of law in Darfur, but, as stated above, this was not clearly understood by civilians.

This observation is consistent with the essays workplace, widely-shared view, reflected in the HIPPO report, that UN missions and their political backers in electric fan New York or Addis Ababa should play a more political role to prevent and solve conflicts and should be more politically-informed in the design and on productivity in the workplace roll-out of the mission. Humanitarian assistance and services. Many citizens also judged the electric fan, three missions on their ability to essay on gps provide humanitarian assistance or other direct services to civilians. While all three missions are mandated to contribute to electric fan the creation of the necessary environment for the delivery of humanitarian aid, none of them have a direct task in the delivery of essay writing as a, aid or other services. Yet, in practice, peace operations often find themselves in a situation where they are prompted to provide humanitarian services, either because of the dire situation in or around their camps, or because of attempts to create better relations with nearby communities. The involvement in humanitarian assistance seems to have a positive relation with civilians’ expectations and perceptions of the mission. In Somalia, people’s perception of AMISOM is shaped positively when AMISOM contingents provide them with medical assistance, medicine, or food aid. In South Sudan, the presence of many vulnerable, displaced persons inside UN compounds creates a strong demand for humanitarian assistance by thesis electric fan the mission. Essay On Gps! While in this scenario, interviewees differentiated between humanitarian actors and peacekeepers, they still often held UNMISS ultimately responsible for the lack of food, water, and fan charcoal in the PoC sites. In Darfur, UNAMID’s roles in providing humanitarian assistance directly and in escorting humanitarian actors were positively regarded by sloan essay questions its beneficiaries, but they were also seen as insufficient, given the considerable demands.

In a context in which several humanitarian agencies have been forced to leave Darfur because of government restrictions, similar to those imposed upon UNAMID, there are serious deficits in humanitarian assistance, increasing the demands on UNAMID. Furthermore, in both Darfur and electric South Sudan, respondents mentioned the important role for the respective missions in assisting displaced persons in their return, by providing protection and assistance and by negotiating appropriate return conditions. While it clearly goes beyond the essay writing form, core tasks of a peace operation to deliver humanitarian assistance, the importance attached by civilians to this aspect of the mission’s functioning demonstrates the multi-dimensional nature of thesis, human security. Providing such support not only helps in addressing the essay of the, dire humanitarian situation in which many citizens in these conflict zones live, near or in UN compounds, but would also be beneficial for thesis, the relations between the mission and civilians—and thus for its effectiveness. Many of the points cited above—especially military-civilian relations, protection of civilians, and humanitarian assistance—are linked to the different country contingents present in the region where the civilians live. When asked about how they perceived the mission in essays on productivity in the their country, many civilians made a distinction between different the country contingents present. Somalis are generally wary of foreign presence on their soil and are especially distrustful about the presence of troops from Kenya and Ethiopia—two countries with a history of unilateral intervention in the country. However, other contingents, especially those from Djibouti, are much better regarded because of their better relations vis-a-vis the Somali community, the provision of thesis electric fan, services, and bernabei essay the lack of abuses and misconduct. By contrast, the thesis electric fan, Ethiopians seem to sloan questions be positively regarded in South Sudan, while the Indian and the Bangladeshi contingents are at the other end of the spectrum. Citizens mentioned a lack of consistency in the effectiveness of the more negatively regarded contingents, especially in their willingness to thesis electric fan use force when civilians, or even the peacekeepers themselves, were under attack.

In Darfur, there appears to essays on productivity workplace be a preference for troops coming from non-African countries—the majority of the troops come from other continents than Africa. Other Darfuris mentioned differences among African troops, better regarding the Rwandan troops than Ethiopian or Egyptian troops. Several reasons were given for the perceived (or actual) varying quality of the different national contingents. Some believed it had to do with their training and equipment, while others pointed to the different levels of commitment of the country contingents and directives from national capitals. The differences between troop-contributing countries are a well-known matter of concern for most peace operations. As the electric fan, HIPPO report states, it is writing as a form of art “past time to institutionalise a framework to thesis electric fan engage troop and police contributing countries.” As demonstrated above, those interviewed from all three countries were fairly critical about the performance of the peace operations in their countries, prompted by a combination of a failure to protect civilians, a limited understanding of the mandates, difficult relations with the host government, varying levels of humanitarian assistance, and the disparity between troop-contributing countries. Overall, a dedicated effort should be made to include the voices of citizens in the strategy, design, and implementation of peace operations and recognize these citizens as essential agents for success. This is even more relevant in the current climate, where financial motives override other factors in decision-making. Some see this as an opportunity for reform—and accountability for the failure to protect.

In any case, if such cuts are unavoidable, those at the decision-making table should mitigate any negative effects this will have on the citizens the mission is supposed to protect and essay on gps learn lessons from those citizens’ reality to bolster results. To improve on this, the UN, AU, and other partners should: Improve effective communication on mandate, capacity, and activities. Dedicate sufficient resources, training, and dedicated staff to ensure effective outreach and interaction with the communities in which peace operations are present, including to prepare the ground and manage expectations prior to and during deployment. Effectively consult citizens about mandate renewal, pro-actively engage with them after incidents (abuses, attacks on civilians, etc.), and explain to them what the thesis fan, mission can do and, equally important, what it cannot do.

As suggested by another observer, work with community liaison assistants, measure perceptions, and move beyond interaction with elites. Essays In The Workplace! Increase efforts on electric fan the protection of civilians. Engage in serious discussions with troop-contributing countries about operational command and pre-mission training. Keep mission and contingency leadership accountable for any failure to protect civilians. Provide sufficient resources and guidance. Engage in a high-level political dialogue with the host country about its involvement in atrocities and any obstacles to as a mission performance. Reinforce the mission’s political standing by regular high-profile visits. Impose, if appropriate, adequate and timely sanctions on host countries in case of persistent non-cooperation.

Create a humanitarian action plan for every zone in which peacekeepers are present, in coordination with UN agencies and NGOs. Thesis! Ensure that adequate protection is available to enable NGOs to fulfil their responsibilities without risking the lives of their staff, while fully respecting their independence and essay humanitarian principles. Create a forum for regular, structured dialogue with troop-contributing countries about mandates, chain of command, troop capacity and the handling of complaints or proved incidences of abuses committed against civilians by peacekeepers. Guarantee that only troops with sufficient training (including on thesis fan protection of civilians and international humanitarian law) from writing as a, countries committed to fully and effectively implementing the mandate can participate in peace operations. Create transparent and effective accountability mechanisms to help rebuild trust between the civilians and electric mission after incidences of abuse or neglect committed by peacekeepers.

Ensure appropriate responses to complaints by the civilians and make sure any outcomes are clearly and bernabei essay effectively communicated to thesis electric fan the population. 726 Broadway, #543, New York, NY 10003. Phone: (+1) 212 998-3680. The Center on english surgery International Cooperation (CIC) creates the ideas, analysis and thesis electric policies needed to transform international cooperation on leading global challenges, such as increasing peace and security, strengthening fragile states, securing strategic resources and english about plastic tackling climate change.