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Frequently Asked Questions About Resumes: The Complete Job-Search Resume FAQ. by Katharine Hansen, Ph.D., and Randall S. Hansen, Ph.D. This article seeks to be the complete compendium on the questions that job-seekers most often asked about resumes. Essay Impolicy African Slave Trade. In creating this Resume FAQ, we have created seven sections with a total of 55 of the most frequently asked questions about job-search resumes. Here’s how this Resume FAQ is divided for systhesis by, navigation ease: What is the purpose of a resume? What are the absolute, unbreakable rules of resume writing? What about impolicy of the slave trade “breakable rules” of resume writing? Do I need more than one version of my resume? If I’ve never created a resume before, how do I get started?
What are the systhesis by, most important aspects of essay on the african, a resume, and how can I remember them? What should be included on a resume? There’s nothing tricky about listing my name, is there? What if my name is scholarship for master thesis in germany, hard to pronounce or it fails to slave trade clarify my gender? How should I list my address? What other contact information do I need? III. Elements to Sharpen a Resume’s Focus. Why does a resume need to be sharply focused? How can you sharpen the focus of your resume? Should I include my career objective on my resume?
What is a branding statement, and how is it used in combination with a headline? What about a Profile, Skills Profile, Qualifications, or Strengths section? What are keywords and how should I use them in my resume? What is the Resume Ingredients Rule? What kinds of systhesis by, Licenses or Certifications should I list? IV. Handling Education and impolicy trade, Experience on Resumes. What goes first — education or experience? What should I always list under the should be written in past or present, Education section?
What if I have no college degree, no four-year college degree, or did not attend college? Should my other major heading be “Employment” or “Experience?” Should the Experience section be further broken down into subsections? How should my jobs be listed under the on the impolicy of the african slave, Experience section? Should I list company names first or job titles first? How should I list what I did in each job? How do I handle multiple jobs with the same employer? How far back should I go in my job history to avoid age discrimination? What if a former employer no longer exists or has changed its name? What are transferable skills, and what is for master, their significance on a resume? How do I handle employment gaps? How can I avoid appearing to be a job-hopper?
What if I have no paid experience? Which transferable skills are most in demand by employers? Why and how should accomplishments and achievements be incorporated in essay impolicy african slave trade the Experience section? What are Situation - Action - Results statements? What is the significance of study stroke patient occupational, quantifying on a resume?
What is parallelism, and what is its significance on a resume? V. Other Resume Sections and essay of the african slave, Fine-Tuning Resume. What other sections could my resume include? Should I list Hobbies and for master thesis in germany, Interests? Should I list References on on the impolicy of the slave trade my resume?
How should I handle references? Should I use the line: “References available upon Request?” VI. Handling Special Resume Situations. How can I position myself for a career or industry change? How do I handle relocation? As an entrepreneur transitioning back to the workplace, how can I make the most of my resume? How can I ensure my resume will be kept confidential? How many pages should my resume be? What are the most important design elements for a resume? What kind of paper should I use?
How should I duplicate my resume? How should I mail my resume? How can I make sure I’ve covered all the study occupational therapy, bases with my resume? Should I hire a professional resume writer? To get a job interview. To structure the interview process.
To remind the interviewer of you after you’re gone. To serve as the slave, basis for systhesis by, justifying the essay, hiring decision to others. What are the absolute, unbreakable rules of resume writing? We believe there are only two absolute rules in resume writing: These rules, however, are absolutes: Almost every rule you have ever heard can be broken if you have a compelling reason. What about “breakable rules” of term writers, resume writing? Many of the breakable rules of resume relate to the length a resume should be; all breakable rules are covered in other parts of this FAQ. Do I need more than one version of my resume? Most likely, yes. You may need more than one organizational format for your resume.
See table below for the most common organizational formats. We include functional and chrono-functional formats because they can be used in extreme situations, but we recommend chronological resumes for of the african trade, most job-seekers. Purely functional resumes are the scholarship for master thesis in germany, least common, least preferred by employers, detested by recruiters… and most Internet job boards do not accept this resume format. While the chrono-functional/hybrid/combination resume is slightly more acceptable to employers than the purely functional format, most employers are unaccustomed to functional formats of any kind, finding them confusing, annoying, and a red flag that something is wrong in your background. At the very least, they will probably scrutinize a chrono-functional resume more closely to check for details and find the impolicy of the african, flaws that inspired the candidate to thesis in germany use this format. Some employers insist on knowing exactly what you did in each job. Recruiters/headhunters particularly disdain functional formats, so this approach should never be used if you are primarily targeting recruiters with your job search. Employers in impolicy of the african conservative fields are not fans of functional formats, nor are international employers.
Functional formats, even chrono-functional, also are not acceptable on should an essay be written in past or present many online job boards. In summary, the chrono-functional resume has very limited uses for extreme cases of problematic or unusual job histories. If you feel you have no other choice than a chrono-functional resume, we recommend you enlist a professional resume writer to craft the resume into on the, a viable marketing tool. You may need more than one delivery format for your resume. See table below for the most common delivery formats. One additional delivery format to consider is a Portable Document Format (PDF) resume, which offers the advantages of being completely invulnerable to should be written in past tense viruses and totally compatible across computer systems (requires software such as Adobe Acrobat Reader, a free download, to be opened and of the african slave, read). A resume converted to PDF, which carries a .pdf file extension, looks virtually identical to the original document from which it was created, thus preserving the resume’s visual appeal, and be written or present tense, it also appears consistently from computer to computer. A few employers specifically request PDF resume files. Essay On The Impolicy African Slave Trade. However, for resumes placed in employers’ Applicant Tracking Systems (which comprises most resumes submitted electronically) PDFs are problematic because “applicant tracking systems lack a standard way to structure PDF documents,” cautions Jon Ciampi, CEO of Preptel, a company that aims to help job-seekers penetrate these systems (as quoted in an article on practice writing a thesis CIO.com by Meridith Levinson). Read our article, Pros and Cons of PDF Resumes in Job-Search. For more about delivery methods, see our articles:
If I’ve never created a resume before, how do I get started? Here are some suggestions for resources to get you started: Try the impolicy trade, Inexpensive Resume Workbooks from the practice writing sentence, late Yana Parker. A resume wizard or template in Microsoft Word can be a useful starting point because it will prompt you to fill in appropriate information. Of The African Trade. Once you’ve used a Word template to start your resume, it’s best to customize the layout and design. In Past Tense. We have some issues with the way information is organized in these templates. Worse, so many job-seekers use these Word templates that they don’t stand out. Impolicy Slave Trade. Use our Fundamentals of a Good Chronological Resume as a basic template. Get inspiration from our collection of more than 100 Free Sample Professional Resumes.
If you’re really stuck, consider hiring a professional resume writer. What are the essay genetic testing, most important aspects of a resume, and how can I remember them? The most important things to remember about writing an effective resume can be encapsulated in a six-letter acronym, FAKTSA, in which the letters stand for: What should be included on a resume? We offer lists of the items that you absolutely must include in your resume and a list of optional items to consider including: Objective Statement (currently out of fashion; please click the preceding link to see what replaces the of the, objectives statement) Headline and/or Branding Statement (often used instead of an systhesis by Objective Statement); see more about career branding in our Career Branding Tutorial Professional Profile or Qualifications Summary (use this Professional Profile/Qualifications Summary Worksheet) Keyword Summary Licenses/Certifications Accomplishments/Achievements Transferable Skills Strengths Affiliations/Memberships Languages Foreign travel Presentations Publications Activities Hobbies/Interests Military The notation, “References available on essay on the impolicy slave trade request” We also offer this list of items that should never be included on papers writers a resume: Height, weight, age, date of essay impolicy of the african slave trade, birth, place of birth, marital status, sex, race, health, social security number (except on an International Resume/CV) Reasons for leaving previous job(s) Name of boss or supervisor Street addresses and phone numbers of past employers (city and term papers writers, state is sufficient) Picture of essay on the impolicy of the african slave, yourself Salary information Specific names of testing, references (more on this issue later) The title “Resume” Religion, church affiliations, political or other controversial affiliations: Any disclosure on impolicy trade your resume that could get you screened out term as a candidate is risky. You may take the on the, stance that you don’t want to work for an employer that would eliminate you because a hiring manager didn’t like your political beliefs or religious affiliation. But given that, for most candidates, religion, politics, and any other controversial affiliations are not relevant to your next job, it’s wise to practice writing a thesis sentence leave them out. There’s nothing tricky about listing my name, is on the of the african, there?
Use the name by which you are known professionally. If you go by your middle name, for example, you can list your name one of these ways: The same goes for nicknames. Keep in mind that some nicknames don’t exactly project professionalism, but if you are universally known by your nickname, you may want to scholarship thesis in germany list yourself that way on your resume. With your name, list also any professional credentials (M.D., CPA, Ph.D.) that are integral to the job you seek. What if my name is on the slave, hard to pronounce or it fails to thesis in germany clarify my gender? This issue isn’t as silly as it seems. Even if you’re well qualified, an employer may hesitate to phone you for an interview if he or she can’t pronounce your name or even doesn’t know whether to expect a male or female. For the on the african slave trade, difficult-to-pronounce name, include a phonetic pronunciation of your name in small type in the “letterhead” portion of your resume.
Example: “Sally Hsieh (pronounced ‘Shay’).” For a unisex name, such as Lee or Dale, consider adding a courtesy title to your letterhead, as in argumentative essay genetic “Ms. Lee Anderson” or “Mr. Dale Burns.” Especially consider adding a courtesy title if your name is almost always thought of as belonging to trade the opposite gender or if it is a non-English name, and English-speakers would not know whether to expect a man or a woman: “Ms. Genetic Testing. Michael Crane” “Mr. On The Of The African. Jocelyn Smith.” You could also include a middle name that reveals your gender: “Lee Ann Anderson” or “Dale Robert Burns.” Of course, you may consider your ambiguously gendered name an systhesis by advantage and impolicy african, prefer not to practice writing a thesis sentence reveal your gender (even though your gender will become obvious if you’re called for an interview). List your permanent address Most college students give both a college address and permanent address. *What other contact information do I need? While job-seekers were once advised to include as much contact information as possible, the essay on the impolicy african, emerging trend for contact information on a resume is to include a Website address/URL, city and state only (no street address), a single phone number (no second/third number, no fax number), and a single email address, says Findings of 2011 Global Career Brainstorming Day: Trends for the Now, the New the practice, Next in Careers , published by the Career Thought Leaders Consortium. Make sure your email address is professional. You may also want to include links to online profiles, such as on essay impolicy slave Facebook, Twitter, and systhesis by, LinkedIn. If you do, however, ensure that your profiles are squeaky clean, with no content or photos that shed a negative light on you.
If you are in essay impolicy of the slave serious job-hunting mode and employers who call your phone are likely to get voicemail, make sure your voicemail greeting is professional. III. Elements to Sharpen a Resume’s Focus. Why does a resume need to be sharply focused? The reader needs to be able to tell in a quick glance what you want to do and what you would be good at.
A recent study indicates that the practice writing a thesis, reader will spend as few as 6 seconds screening your resume, so you need to focus the on the of the african, reader’s attention quickly. How can you sharpen the argumentative, focus of essay of the african slave trade, your resume? Use a branding statement or headline or both atop your resume. Add a profile/qualifications summary with keywords relevant to the job you seek. Add a keyword section relevant to the job you seek. See our Resume Keywords Worksheet.
Beef up portrayal of thesis in germany, accomplishments and transferable skills. Be sure to spotlight skills that apply to what you want to essay slave trade do next. An Essay Be Written Tense. See our Accomplishments Worksheet and Transferable Skills Worksheet. Cover Letter and Resume Customization Worksheet to help you sharpen your focus. For college students and new grads: Consider adding class projects in your major (or other classes) that are applicable to what you want to on the trade do upon graduation. See our College Experience Worksheet for Resume Development. Should I include my career objective on my resume? Objective Statements have fallen out of case study patient, favor. Many employers and recruiters claim they don’t even read them. That’s because most objective statements are badly written, self-serving, too vague, and not designed to do what they’re supposed to do, which is to sharpen a resume’s focus. What is a branding statement, and how is on the impolicy of the slave trade, it used in combination with a headline?
A “headline” atop your resume usually identifies the position or type of systhesis by, job you seek. A branding statement is essay impolicy of the african, a punchy “ad-like” statement that tells immediately what you can bring to an employer. A branding statement defines who you are, your promise of value, and thesis, why you should be sought out. Your branding statement should encapsulate your reputation, showcase what sets you apart from others, and describe the essay of the african trade, added value you bring to term a situation. Think of it as a sales pitch.
Integrate these elements into the brief synopsis that is your branding statement: What makes you different? What qualities or characteristics make you distinctive? What have you accomplished? What is your most noteworthy personal trait? What benefits (problems solved) do you offer? See a good discussion of branding statements and essay african, headlines, with samples, starting in this section of our free e-book, The Quintessential Guide to writers Words to Get Hired By . What about essay of the slave trade a Profile, Skills Profile, Qualifications, or Resume Strengths section? Whether or not you choose to case study stroke patient include an essay of the objective statement, branding statement, and/or headline on your resume, you may wish to present a Qualifications Summary or Profile section.
In addition to Profile and Qualifications Summary, these resume-topping sections go by numerous names: Career Summary, Summary, Executive Summary, Professional Profile, Qualifications, Strengths, Skills, Key Skills, Skills Summary, Summary of Qualifications, Background Summary, Professional Summary, Highlights of Qualifications. All of should, these headings are acceptable, but our favorite is Professional Profile. Twenty-five years ago, a Profile or Summary section was somewhat unusual on a resume. Career experts trace the use of summaries or profiles to include information about candidates’ qualities beyond their credentials to the publication of the late Yana Parker’s The Damn Good Resume Guide in 1983. Of The Slave. For the last 20-plus years, resume writers have routinely included these sections; however, the age of electronic submissions has now caused the pendulum to swing the other way.
On one hand, electronic submission means that hiring decision-makers are inundated and overwhelmed with resumes and have less time than ever before to peruse each document. That means that many of them do not read Profile or Summary sections. On the other hand, the age of electronic submissions has increased the importance of case stroke occupational, keywords so that candidates can be found in database searches. Even some of the hiring decision-makers who don’t read Profiles and Summaries advise including them as a way to ensure sufficient keywords in the resume. A vocal contingent of decision-makers, especially among recruiters, strongly advocate for a Summary section — but one that is on the impolicy of the african slave, quite succinct — a short paragraph or single bullet point. They want to scholarship for master see in african a nutshell who you are and genetic testing, what you can contribute. Use our Resume Professional Profile/Qualifications Summary Worksheet to help you develop bullet points for this very important resume section.
What are keywords and how should I use them in my resume? Inundated by resumes from essay on the impolicy of the african slave, job-seekers, employers have increasingly relied on digitizing resumes, placing those resumes in keyword-searchable databases, and using software to stroke occupational therapy search those databases for specific keywords that relate to job vacancies. On The Impolicy Trade. Most Fortune 1000 companies, in fact, and many smaller companies now use these technologies. In addition, many employers search the systhesis by, databases of third-party job-posting and resume-posting boards on essay on the impolicy of the the Internet. It is safe to argumentative essay testing estimate that well over 90 percent of resumes are searched for african slave, job-specific keywords. The bottom line is that if you apply for practice a thesis, a job with a company that searches databases for on the impolicy, keywords, and your resume doesn’t have the keywords the company seeks for the person who fills that job, you are pretty much dead in the water.
To some extent, job-seekers have no way of knowing what the words are that employers are looking for when they search resume databases. But job-seekers have information and a number of study patient occupational, tools at essay on the african their disposal that can help them make educated guesses as to which keywords the be written or present tense, employer is impolicy of the slave, looking for. See a detailed discussion of for master thesis, resume keywords and how to on the of the african slave identify them in our article, Tapping the Power of argumentative essay, Keywords to Enhance Your Resume’s Effectiveness and use our Keywords Worksheet to help identify keywords for use in your resume. What is the essay on the impolicy african slave, Resume Ingredients Rule? Note: From author Donald Asher. Organize the argumentative essay genetic, information on your resume in accordance with your desired impact on the reader. This rule should govern which information you present and the order in which you present it. That’s why you always list your work experience in REVERSE chronological order — because your most important and applicable jobs are likely to be the essay of the african trade, most recent. Case Study Patient. You don’t want the first thing that the on the of the african trade, employer sees to scholarship for master thesis in germany be bagboy at the supermarket or waitress if you’ve had more important and essay on the impolicy of the slave, relevant jobs. What kinds of systhesis by, Licenses or Certifications should I list? Any that are relevant to the job you seek.
IV. Handling Education and Experience on Resumes. What goes first — education or experience? It depends on whether your degree or your experience is your best selling point. Always list the most relevant section first… If you are a current college student or about to graduate, generally list education first. If you are currently working, generally list experience first. A good cutoff point for of the african slave, moving your Experience section to the forefront of your resume is a year to 18 months after graduation. What should I always list under the writers, Education section? If you have multiple degrees, list the most recent first.
For each degree, ALWAYS list NAME of your degree FIRST. Include your college name, city, and essay impolicy of the african slave, state Include major(s) and usually minor(s) Include graduation date (or expected graduation): Month/Year. Once you’ve been out of school a year or so, you can omit the month. Consider omitting the graduation date altogether if you are a mature job-seeker de-emphasizing your age. Special note to college students and new graduates: At this point in the FAQ, you may wish to take a side trip to our special Frequently Asked Resume Questions for College Students and New Graduates. What if I have no college degree, no four-year college degree, or did not attend college?
If you have at for master least some college, list it. List an essay impolicy african slave trade associate’s degree or incomplete studies toward a bachelor’s degree. For the incomplete degree, list the college, major, location, span of dates you attended, and, ideally, number of credit-hours completed. Your listing of an associate’s degree, incomplete bachelor’s degree, or no college at all should be beefed up with any training, professional-development, and certificate programs. An Essay In Past. In the unlikely event that you have absolutely none of these, leave off the on the impolicy of the african, Education section.
Some employers (and most recruiters) will screen you out, but if you have succeeded in the past without educational credentials, your professional accomplishments will likely be enough to propel you to an interview. Should my other major heading be “Employment” or “Experience?” Experience, because that heading enables you to study stroke patient list activities other than paid employment, such as volunteer work, internships, sports-team participation, and essay of the african slave, class projects. Should the Experience section be further broken down into subsections? While a resume can sometimes include subsections, such as Relevant (or Professional) Experience and Other Experience, we find it confusing when resumes, especially those of college students, list multiple types of experience — internship experience, volunteer experience, extracurricular experience, leadership experience, etc. How should my jobs be listed under the systhesis by, Experience section? List information in this order:
Job title; Job subheadings should include name of company, city, and state (Do NOT include street addresses, names of supervisors, contact telephone numbers, or other extraneous data.); Dates of employment (include month or seasonal descriptor and african slave, year); Bulleted list of key accomplishments (more to case patient therapy come on this subject); Company description (optional; often sought by recruiters and employers of senior-level job-seekers). Reporting relationships — title of person you reported to essay impolicy of the slave trade and titles and departments that reported to you (optional; often sought by recruiters and employers of senior-level job-seekers). Should I list company names first or job titles first? Generally, list job title first unless you are trying to call attention to testing the name of prominent companies for which you’ve worked. (Example: If you plan to enter the on the of the trade, tourism industry, and you’ve had internships at Disney World, Sea World, and Universal Studios, you could list company names first). Building Tools That Build Better Work Lives. Since 2005, LiveCareer’s team of career coaches, certified resume writers, and savvy technologists have been developing career tools that have helped over 10 million users build stronger resumes, write more persuasive cover letters, and develop better interview skills. Use our free samples, templates, and writing guides and scholarship for master in germany, our easy-to-use resume builder software to help land the essay on the slave trade, job you want. Dr.
Randall S. Case Study Stroke Occupational Therapy. Hansen. Dr. Randall S. Hansen is founder of Quintessential Careers, one of the essay impolicy african slave, oldest and most comprehensive career development sites on the Web, as well CEO of EmpoweringSites.com. He is also founder of MyCollegeSuccessStory.com and argumentative, EnhanceMyVocabulary.com. He is essay impolicy of the african slave trade, publisher of Quintessential Careers Press, including the Quintessential Careers electronic newsletter, QuintZine. Should Or Present. Dr. Hansen is also a published author, with several books, chapters in books, and hundreds of articles. Impolicy Of The. He’s often quoted in the media and conducts empowering workshops around the practice writing sentence, country. Finally, Dr.
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Transboundary Water Disputes in Central Asia: Using Indicators of Water Conflict in Identifying Water Conflict Potential. Valery Votrin , Master's thesis. Vrije Universiteit Brussel. Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy. Master programme in on the of the african, Human Ecology. Academic year 2002-2003. While the literature about the likelihood of an term writers, acute conflict over freshwater resources continues to grow, little work has been done to identify key drivers of such conflict and to establish indicators of water conflict potential. Trade! Such indicators need to incorporate a wide range of physical, social, economic and environmental variables to develop a comprehensive model covering basin specific situation. This method can be applicable in an essay in past or present, those cases of internationally shared rivers where progress towards successful resolution of a dispute was slow or unachievable.
Considering all factors having influence on the river basin regime is becoming crucial to elaborate meaningful and workable framework to provide resolution to the growing water conflict. The Syr Darya and Amu Darya Basins in Central Asia have been long known as #147;hot spots#148; where the potential for escalating existing tensions over water into a violent conflict was high. Essay On The Impolicy Of The Trade! This study contributes to the identification and development of potential indicators of systhesis by, water conflict in Central Asia, while analysing some of them within the essay african slave Geographical Information System (GIS). Unlike other studies that involve global level analysis, the thesis focuses on Central Asia#146;s regional and basin specific information. Taking the systhesis by basin as a unit of research, the proposed study offers a model of relationship between water resources and social, political, economic and environmental patterns in essay impolicy slave trade, the Amu Darya Basin. A parallel analysis of water conflict related variables aims at finding combinations of indicators that provide an indication of potential water conflict. 1.1 Geographical background. 1.2 Historical background. 1.3 Existing water infrastructure. 1.4 Water scarcity and study stroke occupational access.
1.5 Water quality. 2.1 Water management during the Soviet Union. 2.2 Post-independence water management. 2.3 Legal framework for current water management in on the impolicy african slave, Central Asia. 2.4 International actors. 2.5 Recent water conflicts. 2.6 Current water disputes. 2.6.1 The Syr Darya Basin.
2.6.2 The Amu Darya Basin. 2.7 Potential water disputes. 2.8 Multidimensional nature of Central Asia#146;s water disputes. 3.1 Measuring water conflict potential. 3.2 Testing indicators of water conflict. 3.4 Attempts at applying water conflict indicators to systhesis by Central Asia. 3.5 Water Event Intensity Scale. 3.6 Aggregating data for the Amu Darya Basin. 3.6.4 Minority groups.
3.6.6 Overall relations. 3.6.7 Freshwater treaties. 4.1 Population density/runoff. 4.2 Planned water infrastructure. 4.2.1 The Rogun Dam. 4.2.2 Golden Century Lake.
4.3 Further internationalisation potential. 4.3.1 Possible secession of Karakalpakstan. 4.3.2 Role of Afghanistan. 4.5 Overall relations/Water events. 4.6 Freshwater treaties.
5.1 River boundaries. 5.2 Trade complications. 5.3 Sarez Lake: A natural threat to on the of the slave the basin#146;s stability. 5.4 Impact of international law. 5.6 Summing up results. 5.7 Conclusions and recommendations. List of essay, Figures. I am greatly indebted to Nguyen Hahn Quyen of Institute of Geography, Vietnam National Centre for essay impolicy of the african trade Natural Sciences and Technology, and to Aaron T. Wolf and Brian Blankespoor of Oregon State University, USA, for providing GIS-related advice and data.
I am also deeply grateful to Gretta Goldenman of papers, Milieu Ltd and my promoter Prof. Marc Pallemaerts for their guidance and comments. My thanks are also due to Alexey Tolmachov for impolicy african technical support. Water. Everywhere you turn here, you're involved with the lack of water. Why is there so little of term writers, it. The water was there. It dries up. And never again is there water#133; Over the last decades, there has been a growing speculation about the likelihood of an acute conflict or even war over on the of the slave trade, freshwater resources. Scholars increasingly point out that the 21 st century might see the battles fought due to water scarcity.
Indeed, water is the only resource h. aving no substitute, and papers writers the demand for it is constant and burning. All forms of the Earth#146;s life, including humans, need water to essay on the of the african slave trade survive. The fact that we inhabit the #145;water planet#146; soothes little as only less than 3% of for master thesis in germany, total water resources on the Earth are freshwater. Its distribution is obviously uneven, with some nations suffering severe droughts every year and essay on the impolicy of the african slave trade the others blessed with water abundance. It is no wonder then that through the whole history of human race, water allocation and quantity fuelled tensions between various states, with particular role played by thesis in germany, transboundary river resources. And although history shows that full-scale wars over water, proving to be neither strategically rational nor hydrographically effective, have never been fought (Wolf, 1998), water continues to be a source of intense disputes worldwide. The problem grows harder when it comes to the relationships between two or more countries over river water as a result of the #147;internationalisation#148; of a basin through political change. The number of international basins has grown from 214 in 1978 to 263 today. These international basins cover 45.3% of total land surface, affect about 40% of the world#146;s population, and on the trade account for systhesis by about 60% of global river flow.
Nineteen basins are shared by 5 or more riparian countries, with only the Danube being shared by 17 riparians, whereas five basins #150; the Congo, Niger, Nile, Rhine and Zambezi #150; are shared by between 9 and 11 countries (Wolf, 2001). In this situation, such long-negotiated instrument of international water law as the 1997 UN Convention on the Non-Navigational Uses of International Watercourses, is impolicy of the african slave trade of little help as it provides for systhesis by equally contradictory #145;equitable use#146; and #145;no significant harm#146; principles: while the former is favoured by upstream countries, downstream riparians insist on emphasising the latter because it protects their own rights. It is also difficult to enforce the Convention in the absence of any international enforcing mechanisms. More importantly, the on the of the african slave trade Convention hardly weighs out a variety of political, social, economic, demographic and environmental factors that encompass each shared river basin. Negotiators whose task is to provide timely diplomatic intervention, or apply means of the so-called #145;preventive diplomacy#146;, in order to avoid the escalation of a dispute into open conflict need to term writers be aware which basin is prone to water conflict well in advance. To do that, they need to identify potential indicators of conflict that incorporate a wide range of physical, social, economic and environmental variables, including those which can be analysed within a Geographic Information System (GIS), and to develop a comprehensive model to explore specific linkages between them.
In particular, this method can be applicable in those cases of internationally shared rivers where progress towards successful resolution of essay of the african slave trade, a dispute was slow or unachievable. Considering all factors having influence on the river basin regime is becoming crucial to elaborate meaningful and workable framework to provide resolution to the growing water conflict. Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, Central Asia has become a tangle of for master, unresolved transboundary water disputes. Water is the most critical resource in Central Asia and it #147;has more often been the source of competition rather than the focus of conservation#148; (Hogan, 2000b). The absence of essay on the of the trade, mechanisms to handle the water problems has already resulted in various accusations of improper water use. Consequently, the whole region becomes the site of potential conflict that requires a framework which should incorporate a great many variables to identify the proneness to water conflict and to allow for the possibility of preventive diplomacy. Such method which has never been used towards the specific problem of term, Central Asian water disputes can provide solutions based on a more holistic approach to natural resources, while recognising the on the impolicy african trade historical, geopolitical and scholarship for master in germany natural characteristics of the region. This study seeks to identify potential indicators of water conflict and analyse some of them within the Geographical Information System (GIS). Unlike other studies that involve global level analysis, the thesis will focus on essay impolicy of the african slave, Central Asia#146;s regional and basin specific information. An attempt to answer a question of practice a thesis, what indicators better point to water conflict will be taken. Chapter 1 focuses on the background of water use in Central Asia.
Chapter 2 overviews main regional water conflict/co-operation trends and highlights major hot spots in the Amu Darya and Syr Darya Basins. On The Impolicy Of The Slave! Chapter 3 identifies the main groups of water conflict indicators and develops the Amu Darya Basin GIS covering some water conflict indicators. Should Or Present Tense! Chapter 4 provides specific details of on the of the african, each indicator. Finally, Chapter 5 discusses the main findings of the study. The study aims at systhesis by testing the working hypothesis that proneness of slave, a specific river basin to should an essay be written in past or present tense water conflict can be identified through a variety of indicators representing physical, political, environmental and socio-economic processes occurring in this specific region, thus providing better chance for using preventive diplomatic actions. The study#146;s methodology is on the impolicy african based on the concept of international river basins offered by the Transboundary Freshwater Dispute Database (TFDD), Oregon State University (TFDD, 2002).
The database contains a large collection of water treaties and agreements and systhesis by is a sound foundation for transboundary water conflict research. For the purposes of this study, the Amu Darya Basin is examined. Taking the basin as a unit of research, the proposed study offers a model of on the of the, relationship between water resources and social, political, economic and environmental patterns in scholarship for master in germany, Central Asia. There is also chance to explore the use of GIS such as ESRI Arc View for social research. A parallel analysis of water conflict related variables focuses on finding combinations of indicators that provide an indication of potential water conflict. Central Asia lies in the heart of the Eurasian continent and essay on the impolicy slave trade is comprised of the five former Soviet republics #150; Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan, as well as of northern Afghanistan and China#146;s Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region. All these share basins of the two major rivers in the region: the Amu Darya and the Syr Darya which form the Aral Sea basin. Systhesis By! The Amu Darya catchment basin constitutes 62% of the region#146;s surface water resources and the Syr Darya forms the remaining 30%.
The Basin#146;s population of over 35 million occupies about 1.5 million square kilometres and population density varies from about 10 persons per square kilometre in on the impolicy african slave, the desert plains to over 300 in the valleys and foothills of the mountains (Smith, 1995). With domination of low-lying deserts, the climate in Central Asia is stroke hot and dry, with low and irregular precipitation. Sharp daily and seasonal differences in temperature are typical, with long hot summers and cool moist winters. The annual precipitation in the lowland is only 80-200 mm, concentrated in the winter and spring, while in the mountains it ranges 600-800 mm. On The African Trade! The region has very different climatic zones with distinct water demands for irrigation.
Agricultural, industrial and personal needs can only be satisfied through diversion of water from the practice writing a thesis sentence Syr Darya, Amu Darya and Zeravshan rivers and their tributaries. The Amu Darya is Central Asia#146;s largest river and has the on the of the african slave highest water bearing capacity of the region draining the catchment of 692,300 km 2 . It originates in case, the Pamir mountains and forms the Pyandj river at the Tajik-Afghan border. Essay Impolicy Slave Trade! Near town of Termez in systhesis by, Uzbekistan the Pyandj is joined by the Surkhandarya to form the Amu Darya. The Pyandj is essay on the augmented by a number of major tributaries including the Vaksh and Kafirnigan. From its headwaters, the Amu Darya flows 2540 km west across Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan and finally crosses the Uzbek region of Karakalpakstan to discharge into writing a thesis, the Aral Sea. Discharge is closely related to the amount of snowfall and summer temperatures, with mean annual flow between 46.9 and 108.4 km 3 per annum with an average of 78.5 km 3 (O#146;Hara, 2000). The Syr Darya is the longest (2,212 km) river in Central Asia, having less catchment of 219,000 km 2 . It rises in the mountains in Kyrgyzstan and has two major tributaries: the Naryn fed by over 700 glaciers in the Tien Shan, and the Kara Darya sourcing in the Ferghana and Alay mountains. Essay On The Impolicy Of The African Trade! After confluence in eastern Uzbekistan, these form the Syr Darya which crosses into essay genetic testing, Tajikistan and essay on the impolicy of the slave trade then re-enters Uzbekistan and finally flows into Kazakhstan where it discharges into the Aral Sea. Its discharge is smaller than the one of the Amu Darya, ranging from 21.4 to. 54.1 km 3 per annum, with the average of 37.2 km 3 (Vinogradov, 1996; O#146;Hara, 2000). The Zeravshan, the third largest river in Central Asia, begins in the Pamir mountains in Tajikistan and crosses high mountain valleys before entering the flat plains in Samarkand region of Uzbekistan.
As a result of intensive evaporation and consumption, the river gradually disappears in Kyzylkum desert before reaching the Amu Darya. Mean annual flow of the Zeravshan river is 5.2 km 3 (Smith, 1995). The major states of the 19 th century#146;s Central Asia, the systhesis by Bukhara Emirate and the Khiva and the Kokand Khanates, were put under the control of the Russian Empire by the end of the century, when the Anglo-Russian Agreement curtailed further Russian expansion in the vicinity of the northern borders of British India. By 1895, the Aral Sea Basin was firmly under the control of Russia, either directly or as protectorates. Thus, the scene for the future colonial relationship was set that persisted under the Soviets and indirectly led to on the of the african trade the Aral Sea environmental catastrophe. The 1917 Bolshevik Revolution toppled the Provisional Government (in power between March-November 1917) and proclaimed Russia the systhesis by Soviet Republic, eventually to be replaced by the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. The creation of Central Asian states, in their modern borders, was finished by 1924. In fact, the USSR established modern-day Central Asian states set to become independent nations in future (Bedford, 1998).
In 1991, after the Belovezh Agreement was signed by the leaders of the three most powerful Soviet republics #150; Russia, Ukraine and on the slave Belarus, the Soviet Union ceased to exist and the Soviet republics became independent. The independence appeared a somewhat of a shock for the five Central Asian states, as there was little domestic pressure for them to genetic leave the Soviet Union and no real history as independent nations. Closely woven together economically, they had no experience of on the impolicy, dealing with important economic decisions, which have always been taken in practice writing a thesis, Moscow. Typically, former apparatchiks as presidents of now independent states were left in power. Nevertheless, necessary cosmetic changes were made such as banning their local Communist parties, reinventing themselves as people#146;s representatives, etc. Understandably, a new political structure called the Commonwealth of Independent States, appeared in December 1991 as a result of the Alma-Ata Declaration that brought the USSR to an end and legally established the post-communist states (Gleason, 2001; ICG, 2002b). In their description of Central Asian statehood, Menon and on the of the Spruyt (1999) give several important particularities of state formation after the should an essay be written tense collapse of the essay impolicy of the trade Soviet Union in Central Asia to systhesis by keep in mind. The states were formed by Stalin#146;s administrative diktat that assigned largely arbitrary borders to essay of the african slave the republics and allotted such territories to #147;titular#148; nationalities, which is why state boundaries and case study stroke patient occupational ethnic composition in on the impolicy african trade, Central Asia lack correspondence; Central Asian states are late developers who have traditionally opted for interventionist economic policies and authoritarian government; clan, religious, ethnic and regional affinities here have not been displaced by centralising, high-capacity states; and, finally, these states lack any experience with democratic multi-party systems. With irrigation agriculture being the largest water consumer in the region, all Central Asian rivers are utilised and case heavily managed. Between 1960s and 1980s, an extended network of on the impolicy of the slave, dams, reservoirs and canals has been built in the Aral Sea Basin. The largest water storage facilities are the Toktogul Reservoir in Kyrgyzstan controlling the term flow of the Naryn river, and impolicy trade the Nurek Dam on should an essay be written or present, the Vaksh river in Tajikistan, dubbed #147;the largest earth-fill dam in the world#148;.
Only the Syr Darya basin has 22 operating reservoirs (Toryanikova and Kenshimov, 1999), including the Naryn-Syr Darya cascade of dams which consists of five reservoirs: three upper reservoirs with the over-year regulation - the Toktogul (projected total volume is 19.5 km 3 ), the Charvak (2.0 km 3 ), the Andijan (1.9 km 3 ) - and also two channel reservoirs with the seasonal regulation - the Kairakkum (4.03 km 3 ) and the Chardara (5.7 km 3 ), with the aggregate active storage capacity of 24.1 km 3 (Khamidov et al, 1999). Both rivers have a total of 274 water diversion structures and 612 km of on the african slave, main canals (Elhance, 1997). Figure 1.2: Layout of papers, water infrastructure in the Aral Sea Basin. Source: Tsusui and african trade Hatcho, 1995. However, due to the lack of systhesis by, maintenance and high silt content in the Amu Darya water (up to 6 kg of silt and sand per 1 cubic metre), many important water facilities like, for example, Hauzkhan, Kurtli and Geok-Tepa reservoirs in Turkmenistan, are currently half silted up (Mouradov, 2002). In Soviet times, at least $60 per acre was spent to maintain the water systems. Uzbekistan currently spends less than $25 per acre. Tajikistan, recovering after the essay of the slave trade civil war, spends $4 (Wines, 2002).
As a consequence, of 55 m 3 of for master thesis, water to be used for irrigation, only 38-44 m 3 of water reach the on the impolicy of the african slave fields and plants actually receive 25-26 m 3 due to the outdated irrigation technology (Yegorov, 2001). Among the irrigation canals, the Karakum Canal, the world#146;s largest irrigation canal, is the most significant. Systhesis By! Built between 1950 and 1987 and considered one of the great engineering feats of the Soviet era, it has taken water some 1,370 km across southern Turkmenistan from the Amu Darya to the Caspian Sea. Though currently in on the slave trade, crisis due to the very poor maintenance, the Karakum Canal still supports 3.5 million hectares of rangeland and practice writing a thesis sentence about 1 million hectares of cropland, providing also power generation, water for industrial and domestic use and partly navigation (Hannan and O#146;Hara, 1998). Other canals include: the North and essay on the Grand Ferghana Canals transporting water from the Syr Darya to the Ferghana Valley; the Karshi Canal providing water to systhesis by 1.2 million hectares in essay impolicy of the african slave, Uzbekistan#146;s Karshi Steppe; the practice Amu-Bukhara Canal irrigating land in the Bukhara Region in Uzbekistan from the Amu Darya; and the South Hungry Steppe and Kirov Canals irrigating the Golodnaya (Hungry) Steppe from the Syr Darya (Nanni, 1996). Soviet-built irrigation schemes brought about widespread and rapid land degradation which only in Turkmenistan resulted in land being abandoned at a rate of over 46,000 hectares per impolicy of the slave, annum in writing, the 1970s (O#146;Hara and Hannan, 1999). Nevertheless, some of the projects are still under construction, for example, the huge Rogun Dam upstream of the on the impolicy african slave trade Nurek. Given the current location of reservoirs, about 60% of total storage capacity of the Amu Darya and 9% of total storage capacity of the Syr Darya are controlled by scholarship for master, Tajikistan, whereas Kyrgyzstan controls 58% of total storage capacity of the Syr Darya largely because of the Toktogul.
Downstream Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan have very few water storage facilities and essay on the impolicy of the african slave trade are entirely dependent for water on the upstream countries. The distribution of water in Central Asia is practice a thesis sentence notably uneven. While upstream Tajikistan and essay on the impolicy african slave trade Kyrgyzstan enjoy water abundance, downstream nations of Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan and partly Kazakhstan experience sharp water shortages. But the scholarship for master in germany problem is predominantly consumption. Impolicy African Slave Trade! At the heart of economic systems of Uzbekistan and writing a thesis sentence Turkmenistan is cotton, which is the impolicy of the slave major hard currency earner for those countries. Cotton is a thirsty culture requiring intensive irrigation. With plans to triple cotton and rice production and almost complete dependence on upstream water resources, water overuse is common in downstream riparians and virtually no effort has been made to reduce water use. Practice Writing A Thesis! In addition, people in Central Asia consume 110 to of the african 120 billion m 3 of water per annum for domestic needs, which is several times higher than in the Middle East. In Uzbekistan alone, more than two billion cubic metres of water are wasted every year (Iskakov and Tabyshalieva, 2002). Water is cheap; in some regions its price is about 65 cents per #147;Olympic swimming pool#148; (Wines, 2002).
The consequence is some drought-prone areas grow rice and keep square miles of nothing but flooded paddies. Central Asia has become notorious worldwide as a site of the most dramatic environmental disaster, the practice writing Aral Sea Crisis. Once the fourth largest lake in the world, the Aral Sea has shrunk by more than half over the last forty years. The major reason for essay of the african slave that was increased discharge of inflowing water for irrigation. Grand Soviet schemes for the production of cotton, rice and other irrigated cultures required huge amounts of scholarship in germany, water.
However, large irrigation canals designed to provide massive agricultural expansion were on arid lands badly suited to irrigation where the on the impolicy african trade soil is often much permeable and seepage is great. In addition, in these areas the an essay or present rivers are raised, and once the essay of the african slave water has been taken from the river channel it cannot return readily. Essay Genetic Testing! The result of on the of the slave, this overexploitation of essay testing, water resources was that by 1995-1996 total annual inflow to the Aral Sea has dropped to essay of the slave 7 km 3 , the surface area of the sea was reduced to 33,000 km 3 , and the level had fallen by 37 m. The sea became saline and devoid of fish (Tanton and Heaven, 1999). Throughout the sea#146;s former basin, water has mobilised deep salt reserves, raised the water table and waterlogged the fields as a result of for master in germany, over-irrigation. In Turkmenistan, 95% of irrigated lands suffer from salinisation, 50% - in Uzbekistan, about 30% - in Kazakhstan, 15% - in Tajikistan. Due to the mismanagement, several new lakes have appeared in the last decades, like the Aidar-Arnasai lake located in the middle course of the Syr Darya and formed in 1969 as a result of the effluent drain from Toktogul and Chardara reservoirs (Sievers, 2002; CAREC, 2002). Intensive irrigation development in the deltaic areas was also accompanied by increased anthropogenic pressure in form of shrub felling, technogenic erosion and deflation. The period between 1978 and 1982 was marked by intensified process of desertification, as a result of the combination of excessive water withdrawals with a series of dry years (1974-1977). Essay On The Impolicy Of The Trade! When hydromorphic swamps dried out, reeds were replaced by associations of mixed grasses and saltwort. Between 1982 and 1996, there was a further dramatic reduction in river discharge, with a total stoppage of inflow in case of the Syr Darya. In the driest years, the Amu Darya flow was almost nil.
As a result, salt and term papers dust storms became a major new environmental hazard for the area (Saiko and Zonn, 2000). Despite that, water consumption goes at the same pace as before. The most populated nation in essay impolicy of the african slave, the region (25 million in 2002), Uzbekistan alone uses three-fifths of regional water supplies. A Thesis! In fact, industrial consumption of water in Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan is twice than in essay of the african, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan (Smith, 1995). Wasteful use of water on Uzbekistan#146;s very large irrigated area has contributed to a dramatic decline of the combined flow of the Amu Darya and Syr Darya and acted as a major factor in the Aral Sea Crisis.
Uzbekistan showed itself to be a staunch proponent for this wasteful use of scholarship for master, water arguing that it is vital for increasing cotton harvests. But excessive water stimulates vegetative growth that does not necessarily increase crop yields and may actually reduce them (Lerman, Garcia-Garcia and on the impolicy of the african trade Wichelns, 1996). Consequently, agriculture has never been a component of a negotiating set for downstream countries as any sweeping agricultural reform would have resulted in stroke patient occupational, foreign currency losses and Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan perpetuated the cotton monoculture to ensure social, political, and economic stability in the short term (Weinthal, 2001). At the same time, Kyrgyzstan started implementing rational water use measures by essay impolicy of the african slave trade, reducing areas of thirsty cultures. As a result, in 2000, out of projected 7,641,600 m 3 of water to be diverted from rivers, 6,866,200 m 3 , or 89.8%, was actually diverted, and writers 4,88,660 m 3 , or 86.5%, of projected 5,648,800 m 3 was used for irrigation (Apasov, 2001). Consequently, water overexploitation is the major reason for downstream riparians#146; water scarcity. Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan use their water inefficiently and hence they experience water scarcity in a time of essay impolicy african trade, water abundance (Wegerich, 2001). The quality of water in the major Central Asian rivers has declined dramatically over the history of large-scale irrigation.
Huge amounts of salt, fertiliser, herbicides, and pesticides found their way to the rivers as the return flow from the fields. Of 36-40 km 3 of total annual return flow, about an essay be written in past tense 50%, or 18-20 km 3 , bring to rivers about 115 million tons of salt and other harmful components, dramatically deteriorating water quality. In the Amu Darya Basin alone, a total of 84 million tons of salt is discharged into essay on the impolicy of the african, the river, transported with the water which is used to irrigate the fields (Kobori and Glantz, 1998; Spoor, 1998; Dukhovny and Stulina, 2001). The groundwater table has risen and became as well contaminated with high levels of writing sentence, salts and other minerals. Essay! Groundwater quality ranges from a maximum of 0.5 g/L of total dissolved salts to 6 g/L, 20 times than in North America (about 300 mg/L). Total dissolved salts in a thesis sentence, drinking water reach the impolicy trade level of 3.5 g/L, with the an essay be written salt limit set by the Uzbek government to be 1 g/L.
In terms of slave trade, chemical contamination, about of 65% of drinking water samples taken in Karakalpakstan proved not to correspond to standards (Small, van der Meer and Upshur, 2001). In the Syr Darya basin, the chemical most commonly found both in river water and in the fields is practice sentence butifos which has been widely used in the 60s-80s as defoliant with intensity of 1-1.5 kg per impolicy of the african slave trade, hectare. Should Be Written In Past Or Present! This organo-phosphorous agent with an acute oral toxicity affects central nervous system, liver and kidneys. Even small dose of butifos would disturb the reproductiveness of women. Essay Of The African Slave Trade! Since 1986, the for master thesis production and use of butifos has stopped; however, it is still found in essay, the water and at the bottom of the Amu Darya and Syr Darya rivers, as organo-chlorine pesticides (BHC, DDT) are (Ishida et al, 1995). High levels of pesticides are found in the tissues of practice, fish in the Amu Darya and Syr Darya.
Samples of cane, rice, millet and wheat grown around the Syr Darya have been found to contain dangerous levels of benzopyrene, a carcinogen produced by car exhausts, oil and coal furnaces and of the manufacture of asphalt (Vinogradov and Langford, 2001). Chemical pollution of drinking water has caused high cancer incidence, and substantial dioxin residues have been found in mothers#146; milk, particularly in Karakalpakstan. In the midstream and downstream areas of the Amu Darya and Syr Darya, the incidence of waterborne diseases such as typhus, paratyphoid, cholera and viral hepatitis has increased enormously. Should Tense! According to essay on the of the african slave trade Uzbekistan#146;s Academy of Sciences, only 8 percent of Uzbekistan#146;s rivers are #147;clean#148;, around 15 percent of river water is study stroke of #147;satisfactory#148; quality, and 41 percent is #147;bad#148;. In 1996, over 10 million people (50 percent of the population) resided in the river basins that fell into the latter category. Around 36 percent of river water is considered #147;dangerous#148; or #147;extremely dangerous#148;, particularly in essay impolicy of the, Karakalpakstan and in the lower delta of the Zeravshan river, where 24 percent of the Uzbek population lives. An Essay Be Written Tense! In many cases, rural dwellers are forced to drink irrigation water, as the only water available, with all health risks involved (Spoor, 1998). The Aral Sea crisis #150; or #147;syndrome#148; as Klötzli (1997) put it #150; has severely affected the area#146;s human ecology where millions of people are dependent on water and soil that appear to be highly contaminated. A new model of regional co-operation other than that used in the Soviet times was needed to address specific environmental, socio-economic and political problems of the region. Chapter 2 discusses regional water co-operation patterns in essay impolicy of the african slave, Central Asia. 2 Regional Water Co-operation and Conflict in Central Asia.
2.1 Water management during the Soviet Union. Within the Soviet Union, inter-republican water resources were managed on the basis of water use plans. These plans were developed by local Ministries of essay testing, Land Reclamation and Water Management and then sent to Moscow to the Ministry of Land Reclamation and Water Management of the Soviet Union for approval. These plans and schemes provided for annual water withdrawal limits with respect to each tributary, reservoir or canal and essay on the impolicy of the african slave trade the limits were calculated against an essay be written tense annual crop requirements. A number of bilateral agreements was signed between the republics to correct water allocation, such as the an agreement between the Turkmen SSR and the Uzbek SSR on water quotas from the Amu Darya, between the Kyrgyz SSR and the Uzbek SSR on the use of waters of the Sokh river, etc. Neither of these agreements contained any provisions with respect to the quality of return flows, i.e. the drainage water disposed of into the rivers. However, these plans and agreements still constitute the basis of current water management in the region (Nanni, 1996). Under the Soviet system of water allocation, water quotas imposed by essay on the african trade, Moscow favoured downstream countries at the expense of the upstream riparians: water-abundant Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan were supposed to supply irrigated agriculture economies of Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan with water in spring and summer when water should be available for cotton fields.
In autumn and winter, when Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan experienced peaks in electricity demand, they were supplied with Turkmen and Uzbek gas and Kazakh coal to satisfy energy consumption. They also received electricity from stroke occupational downstream countries during winter to be compensated for the hydropower produced in summer. Maintenance and operating costs of dams and reservoirs were covered by Moscow. 2.2 Post-independence water management. After independence, the impolicy african slave need for all riparians to enter into an agreement regulating water allocation in the Basin has become apparent. Such agreement signed on 18 February 1992 in Almaty did not go far from water quotas set up under the Soviet Union. As under earlier water allocation schemes, downstream nations received the largest quotas and for master thesis the upstream countries were given much smaller quotas, considering their smaller populations and low cotton production.
The Almaty Agreement established the Interstate Water Management Coordination Commission (IWMC) with a mandate to control rational utilisation of the transboundary water resources. IWMC#146;s decisions regarding intake limits and essay impolicy of the trade rational utilisation of practice a thesis, water are obligatory for all users. It is responsible for governing the on the impolicy slave trade two inter-republican Basin Water Management Bodies (Basseinoe vodnoe ob#146;edinenie #150; BVO): BVO Amu Darya and practice sentence BVO Syr Darya. Trade! Hence, the five preferred to for master in germany continue with the essay BVO management system put in place during the Soviets (IGC, 2002b). Initially, IWMC was responsible for great many issues including water development and allocation planning, water quality control and conservation, environmental protection, preparing annual water allocation plans, defining limits of water use by each riparian, etc. With the establishment of other intergovernmental institutions between 1993 and 1995 such as the Interstate Council on the Aral Sea Basin and the International Fund for the Aral Sea, functions of the IWMC became somewhat duplicated and its relationship with other intergovernmental bodies remain unclear (Vinogradov and Langford, 2001; ICG, 2002b). The Almaty Agreement attempted to secure the existing situation where water was apportioned to allow maximum utilisation whereas the international concept of equitable and optimum utilisation was kept aloof. Scholarship Thesis! The Agreement also lacked the impolicy of the trade provision about dispute settlement. According to it, water disputes are to be settled by the Ministers of Water Resources of the five states. However, it does not provide for the situations in which the Ministers are unable to systhesis by resolve the disputes. In absence of any inter-republican dispute settlement body, this seems to be serious flaw (Nanni, 1996; Vinogradov and Landgford, 2001).
Furthermore, the problem is also actual functioning of the essay on the impolicy of the slave water management bodies, BVOs, who lack funding and for master in germany legal powers. According to the Almaty Agreement, they have to submit a budget to essay impolicy of the african slave trade the ICWC for approval. Systhesis By! Once a budget has been approved, the five members states are supposed to contribute a proportion of their budget based on the percentage of african trade, river water allocated. Scholarship For Master Thesis! In practice, member states are unwilling to contribute funds to an external agency and the BVOs are chronically underfunded. They also lack legal standing as most water management seems to be handled by national water management bodies, not BVOs (Bedford, 1998).
Sur Darya allocation, % Amu Darya allocation, % Source: Bedford, 1998. Hence, upstream countries were further restricted in their economic development and ability to satisfy heating needs during winter months as downstream countries introduced world prices for gas and coal. Unable to essay impolicy trade afford them, Kyrgyzstan increased electricity production at Toktogul reservoir that caused sharp reduction in water to downstream Uzbekistan and systhesis by Kazakhstan for irrigation during cotton season. After serious tensions in on the, 1997, the countries have come to enter a framework barter agreement in 1998. Under this, Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan would provide Kyrgyzstan with gas and coal during winter in return for irrigation water during spring and summer. Systhesis By! However, barter agreements are in constant breach due to a number of reasons: they are ready usually in spring when Uzbek and Kazakh fields are in dire need of essay impolicy african slave trade, water; the parties lack trust and do not keep their commitments; and there is lack of control mechanisms. Also, several years of severe drought have affected the situation dramatically, causing Kyrgyzstan to reduce water for irrigation in systhesis by, summer and triggering floods in Uzbekistan during winter. Attempts to adjust quotas to reflect this have so far failed. On The! Downstream countries have shown little understanding of writing, upstream riparians#146; demands to expand their water use (ICG, 2002b). 2.3 Legal framework for current water management in african trade, Central Asia.
Apart from the main framework agreements over water resources such as the 1992 Almaty Agreement, a number of other water management/allocation agreements have been entered into since 1992. Below is the list of some of study patient occupational therapy, them: Agreement between the governments of Russia and essay on the impolicy african slave trade Kazakhstan on systhesis by, the joint use and protection of transboundary water resources, Orenburg, 1992 Agreement on the creation of the International Fund for the Aral Sea, 1993 Programme on the joint actions on the improvement of essay on the of the slave, environmental situation in the Aral Sea Basin, 1994 Declaration on the problems of case study patient therapy, sustainable development in the Aral Sea Basin, Nukus, 1995 Statement of essay on the of the african slave, leaders of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan about the energy/water use, Bishkek, 1996 Declaration on the creation of the Interstate Commission on Sustainable Development and the need of preparation of should an essay be written in past tense, a Convention on Sustainable Development, Almaty, 1997 Framework Agreement between the essay impolicy of the slave trade governments of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and systhesis by Uzbekistan on joint use of the Syr Darya River Basin water/energy resources, Bishkek, 1998 Agreement between Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Turkmenistan on impolicy african slave, co-operation in the field of environmental protection and Agreement on biodiversity conservation, Bishkek, 1998 Agreement between Kazakhstan and scholarship Kyrgyzstan on the interstate use of hydrological facilities at the Chu and Talas rivers, 2000 Annual intergovernmental water/energy agreements (CAREC, 2002). However, actual regional co-operation over water resources, other than entering into numerous agreements, is #147;glaringly absent#148; (Spechler, 2001). Neither economic co-operation, nor water regulation has been a success, despite all the joint communiqués and speeches. Of The African Trade! For the states experiencing sharp water scarcity, developing a national water strategy would be quite logical. Yet none of Central Asian states has developed one, though Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan have started working on it. Implementing existing agreements appears to be another problem.
Far more accords are signed than implemented and national interests always outweigh joint action. None of water treaties specifies a goal of reducing water use or making agriculture less water-intensive. The sceptical attitude of downstream countries to multilateral co-operation deters them from any environmental and should an essay in past or present financial commitments (Klötzli, 1997). Modern transboundary watercourse law largely based on essay impolicy of the african trade, the 1997 UN Convention on the Law of Non-Navigational Uses of International Watercourses urges riparians not only to create legal agreements to manage their shared resources, but also to find #147;joint management mechanism#148; and to cede sufficient sovereignty to them to make them effective. Case Patient Therapy! The two BVOs mentioned above might be an example if both had sufficient power. And none of Central Asian states have become a party to the 1997 Convention, although Kazakhstan did accede to the Convention on the Protection and Use of Transboundary Watercourses and International Lakes. From the first days of independence, bilateral donors, international agencies and of the slave trade private foundations have funded dozens of projects in order to resolve difficult water situation in practice writing, Central Asia. In doing so, technical solutions were preferred to essay political and term papers economic ones. Especially active were the World Bank, United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the EU Programme of Technical Assistance to the CIS (TACIS), and the United States Agency of International Development (USAID) who spent millions of dollars to help resolve the Aral Sea crisis.
Given poor condition of water infrastructure, this approach has yielded some moderate results, especially with small projects. Effort to tackle water from political perspective, however, has resulted in problems. A lack of essay on the impolicy slave, willingness of Central Asian states to co-operate has buried great many initiatives, like, for example, an attempt by writers, the Organisation of Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) to essay on the impolicy slave trade persuade the five to writers discuss the region#146;s water problems at a water conference to be held in impolicy african slave, London. This effort came to nothing with Turkmenistan#146;s president#146;s response that international conference in London was not the right place to discuss Central Asia#146;s water. In his turn, Uzbekistan#146;s president said that his country had a thousands years of experience in managing water problems and he preferred bilateral discussions to a multilateral conference (Eggleston, 2000; ICG, 2002b). In trying to find a solution to the desiccation of the Aral Sea, AralGEF, a project funded by the Global Environmental Facility (GEF) and designed to create small but viable wetlands and fisheries on the place of the Aral Sea through restoration of a modest flow to the old seabed, and for master the UNDP Aral Seashore Rehabilitation and Capacity Development Project are so far most prominent. According to the World Bank, in essay on the impolicy african trade, order to successfully restore #147;modest flow#148; to the Amu Darya, agricultural runoff should be entirely restored. Thus, huge lakes that developed over the decades of water negligence from the excess water of the Toktogul reservoir and that now support local agriculture, fisheries, recreation areas and biodiversity habitats would thus be bound to writing a thesis disappear. Essay On The Impolicy Of The Slave Trade! And the main success of UNDP#146;s project on rehabilitation of the for master thesis in germany Aral Seashore consisted in providing 16,000 residents of Karakalpakstan with safe drinking water and planting thousands of trees that withered immediately because they were unsuited for on the impolicy of the slave local climate. Part of the problem is the failure of Central Asian states to sentence support the donor projects in a meaningful way, either administratively or financially. Neither donors seem to need anything more than paper reports.
Even National Environmental Action Plans funded by the World Bank, UNDP and essay on the impolicy african slave TACIS are based on the ineradicable idea, the only one familiar to the region#146;s old guard of practice writing sentence, water bureaucrats, that plan, not action, is needed to save the situation. This approach endorsed by donor staffs inherently contradicts the overarching goal to help Central Asian states to essay of the slave move away from a planned economy and to embrace the market economy and term decentralisation (Sievers, 2002; ICG, 2002b). Not surprisingly, this situation has already led to numerous small-scale local conflicts, began in of the slave, the late 1980s when the central authorities weakened their grip on practice writing sentence, Central Asia. Essay On The African Slave! In 1990, the outbreak of conflict in the Kyrgyz town of Osh, on practice writing, the border with Uzbekistan, claimed over 300 lives and was provoked by fierce competition for water together with high population density, limited arable land and ethnic dimension (large population of Uzbeks living in the area). Since summer 1993, there have been serious water tensions between Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan. Kyrgyzstan was blamed by the Uzbek authorities for releasing too much water from the Toktogul reservoir. Of The Slave! Extra water did not reach the Aral Sea but was dumped instead into term, the Aydarkul depression, the large #145;sinus#146; which has developed as a result of years of on the of the african trade, negligence (Klötzli, 1994). In 1997, Uzbekistan has deployed 130,000 troops on the Kyrgyz border to argumentative guard the reservoirs straddling the two countries (Hogan, 2000b; Grozin, 2001). Impolicy African Slave Trade! In June 2001, the Kyrgyz parliament adopted a law classifying water as a commodity, and the government followed up by announcing that the downstream countries would be charged for the water they use.
Uzbekistan#146;s response was to cut off all deliveries of gas to Kyrgyzstan and accuse Kyrgyzstan of failing to honour the be written in past tense barter agreement to essay on the impolicy of the african provide Uzbekistan with water in return for oil and gas. Although weaker in political and military terms Kyrgyzstan acknowledged this failure, Uzbekistan would be emboldened to behave in a more aggressive manner towards its neighbours. The two were on the verge of violent conflict for several times (Khamidov, 2001). Central Asia#146;s two major rivers, as well as their tributaries, have become a focus for growing competition among their riparians, with the Syr Darya being a particular point of tensions. Term! The Amu Darya is rapidly becoming a locus of disputes as the governments of Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan become more hostile towards each other competing also for water, and Afghanistan is about to demand its share. On The Of The African Slave! These tensions have so far been contained without conflict, but all parties have shown a willingness to put their interests first at any cost, including military intervention. A Thesis Sentence! Due to their reliance on agriculture, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan view irrigation as a key security issue (ICG, 2002b). The Syr Darya is shared by four states and, in impolicy of the african, case of Uzbekistan, is shared twice as after flowing from Kyrgyzstan and crossing the Uzbek part of the Ferghana valley the river flows into the Tajik territory in the western Ferghana Valley and then pours again into Uzbekistan. After crossing the Hunger Steppe, the should an essay in past tense Syr Darya runs into Kazakhstan. As indicated above, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan have had particularly discordant history over the use of water from the Syr Darya. Since independence, Kyrgyzstan faces serious economic problems, mainly because of a shortage of energy supply from Russia, Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan.
The primacy of essay on the trade, energy production over essay genetic, the irrigation needs downstream has already created a major discord between Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan (Klötzli, 1994). The 1998 Syr-Darya Framework Agreement between the two has been broken by on the of the, both sides. Term Papers Writers! The implementation of such barter agreement runs across one major problem #150; all barter agreements are delayed until the late spring when the downstream countries urgently need water for irrigation. As this might be the case, Kyrgyzstan would have had an incentive to produce less electricity. However, due to Kyrgyzstan#146;s uncertainty whether enough gas would be provided, it produces electricity to protect itself giving rise to a vicious circle (IGC, 2002).
Uzbekistan intensified the tension more than once by acting in essay impolicy trade, a unilateral manner. In July 1997, it cut off 70 percent of case study stroke, downstream flow, which caused a riot among the Kazakh farmers whose 100,000 hectares were threatened (O#146;Hara, 1998; Hogan, 2000b). History of altering water flow by upstream riparians is no more soothing. In summer 1999, Tajikistan released 700 million cubic meters of water from its Kairakum reservoir without warning its downstream neighbours. As a result, cotton crops in southern Kazakhstan which has received less water than was agreed, were devastated. The situation was seriously aggravated by impolicy slave, Kyrgyzstan#146;s concurrent move to reduce the flow to southern Kazakhstan in retaliation for Kazakhstan#146;s failure to supply coal under the barter agreements. After months of talks, the incident was finally settled (Hogan, 2000a).
At issue is also the Naryn-Syr Darya cascade of dams in Kyrgyzstan. Every year Uzbekistan insists on releasing water from it to improve downstream agriculture. Several times, the conflict was on practice writing sentence, the verge of war. In 1997, Uzbekistan deployed 130,000 troops on the Kyrgyz-Uzbek border, near the of the Toktogul reservoir, to writers conduct military exercises aimed at seizure of essay african slave, a #145;well guarded object#146;, using the armour and helicopters. Meanwhile, Kyrgyzstan, through media leak, hinted that in case the reservoir would be blown up, the should an essay in past resulting flood would sweep away Uzbekistan#146;s Ferghana and Zeravshan Valleys (Grozin, 2001). Kyrgyzstan has tried to persuade Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan to share the maintenance and operating costs of the Toktogul reservoir but these attempts were turned down by the downstream countries.
Kazakhstan claimed that it would not be able to pay the costs #150; between US$ 15 and 27 million per annum. Thus, the opportunity for on the of the african trade the downstream riparians to systhesis by settle the dispute was missed. However, by adopting Law on the Interstate Use of Water Objects, Water Resources and Water Management Installations on 29 June 2001, the Kyrgyz parliament left the door open to impolicy slave trade push the downstream countries into negotiations regarding the maintenance costs of the Toktogul reservoir as later Kyrgyzstan stated that in fact it demanded to systhesis by pay only for the water passing through Kyrgyz reservoirs, i.e. share maintenance costs. This was welcomed by Kazakhstan who agreed to pay for the maintenance of the Kyrgyz water installations, but initially opposed by Uzbeks. Essay On The Impolicy African! However, in March 2002 Uzbekistan reached the agreement with Kyrgyzstan that it would share some costs in return for the guarantee that it would receive water for irrigation. Had more attention have been paid to the barter agreements working properly, the term writers main step to resolving the essay of the slave Syr Darya dispute between Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan would be taken (ICG, 2002b). Shared water storage facilities, like the Andijan reservoir located in the Uzbek part of the Ferghana Valley but supposed to re-channel some water back to in past or present Kyrgyzstan, also represent an inter-state problem (Chait, 1998). The Amu Darya is essay on the of the slave trade shared by four countries #150; Tajikistan as the upstream riparian, Afghanistan, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan #150; and forms the border in some stretches between Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and Afghanistan, and between Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. The Amu Darya is term papers much less regulated and has fewer dams and reservoirs to essay impolicy trade cause potential problems. Argumentative Essay Genetic Testing! However, there are serious tensions along the flow of the river not only between the upstream and downstream riparians, as, for example, between Tajikistan and Uzbekistan, but also between the middle and lower riparians, for on the african trade example, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan. According to papers writers the 1992 water quota agreement, Tajikistan is entitled to 9 m 3 of about 75 m 3 of annual flow of the Amu Darya, or 12 percent.
This is on the impolicy african trade considered low by Tajikistan who needs to expand its agricultural output to patient occupational supply the growing population with food. On The African! Tajikistan#146;s agriculture is underdeveloped since the Soviet times, and the irrigation system is derelict and in need of case study stroke occupational, urgent repairs. Tajikistan sees the only way out as using more water either by increasing its water quota from the impolicy slave trade Amu Darya or by diverting the Zeravhsan river. As 95 percent of the latter are used by practice writing a thesis, Uzbekistan, this would cause serious tensions with Tajikistan#146;s much powerful neighbour. In contrast, increasing the Amu Darya quota seems to be quite easy, since Tajikistan has an upper hand in distributing water resources of the Amu Darya. In principle, nobody could prevent Tajikistan from taking more water than was allocated by the water quota agreement. It is essay of the african slave trade very hard to monitor Tajikistan#146;s performance, as most equipment needed has been destroyed during the or present civil war in 1992-1997.
But even Tajikistan were to increase its water quota moderately, this would have an essay on the of the slave trade, immediate impact downstream. The same water/energy complex as with Kyrgyzstan has developed between Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. Tajikistan#146;s central and southern parts are well provided by electricity from the case study occupational Nurek hydro plant, and northern Tajikistan having no grid lines with the rest of the country relies on essay of the african trade, Uzbekistan#146;s intermittent supplies of electricity and gas in winter. Argumentative Essay Genetic! In return, Tajikistan provides power to essay trade southern Uzbek provinces and scholarship for master often requests that Uzbekistan switched off electricity to northern Tajikistan to keep imports within the impolicy african slave trade agreed limit not to pay higher price. This causes serious discontent as Tajikistan is forced to have electricity rationed in many provinces due to poor state of Tajikistan#146;s grid lines.
The country desires to develop its hydropower resources to break dependence on Uzbekistan. But increasing hydro consumption would seriously affect the downstream access to seasonal water supplies and to writing sentence create further discord along the Amu Darya course. The most dramatic conflict over the Amu Darya water resources is between downstream nations of Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan. Essay Impolicy Slave Trade! Both equally depend on their cotton production and irrigation agriculture and term both claim that each of them exceed their water quotas. Due to impolicy of the african slave the very poor state of Turkmenistan#146;s water infrastructure, most water received by Turkmenistan is wasted.
The country does not want to spend huge funds for the expensive rehabilitation of argumentative essay testing, crippling Turkmen canals and draws off more water from the essay on the of the african Amu Darya instead. The relations between two countries dramatically worsened in the late 2002 when the practice Uzbek ambassador has been declared persona non grata in Turkmenistan on accusation of participating in the conspiracy to oust and kill President Niyazov. Uzbek-Turkmen relations over water can grow even worse, given Turkmenistan#146;s ambitious plan to complete a huge reservoir in the Karakum desert, called the Golden Century Lake. Another point of on the impolicy african slave trade, contention is the Tyuyamuyun reservoir in the delta of the in germany Amu Darya divided between Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan. Both sides feel displeased with the wasteful use of water, and this led to an outbreak of violence in 1992 over essay on the impolicy, the re-direction of writing a thesis sentence, drainage waters and raids by both sides to cut off pipes and irrigation canals (Smith, 1995). Essay On The Impolicy Of The African! Today, the Tyuyamuyun remains one of the several disputed areas in continuing water dispute with Uzbekistan. Throughout the independence period, rumours have circulated of a small-scale secret war between the two states over the river resources, Uzbekistan troops taking control of water installations on should or present, the Turkmen bank of the Amu Darya, and even of a massacre of a large number of Uzbekistan troops in Turkmenistan in 2001. While these reports seem to be unsubstantiated, they are very indicative of simmering tensions between the two (Sievers, 2002).
The complicated water situation in Central Asia forced the governments of the five states to consider alternative plans for developing water infrastructure to gain better control over impolicy trade, water resources. Several giant projects are being considered now in an attempt to find the way out. With little exception, all of them date back to the Soviet planning system, and several projects have been frozen in the 1970s-1980s due to the lack of case stroke patient, funds. Essay On The Impolicy Of The African Slave Trade! Having been revived, they immediately raised considerable anxieties among neighbouring countries. Among those projects are: the Rogun reservoir able to give Tajikistan full control over the Amu Darya, Golden Century Lake in the middle of Turkmenistan#146;s Karakum desert, the project of diverting Siberian rivers of Ob and Irtysh to help replenish the Aral Sea, etc. The former two are discussed in Chapter 4. The idea to divert Siberian water to Central Asia was abandoned in the late 1980s when it has become clear that the project would cause irretrievable damage to the environment. In recent years, however, the project has been revived by Uzbekistan. The main argument of the project#146;s proponents, among whom is the scholarship for master thesis mayor of Moscow Yury Luzhkov, is that the Siberian rivers frequently flood and hence have excess of water to share with water-deficient Central Asian countries. Yet in reality floods are the integral part of a river system and there is no any #147;excess#148; water. In projecting a huge canal 2,500 kilometres long, 200 metres wide and 15 metres deep from on the of the slave trade Western Siberia to papers writers Central Asia, it was estimated that 23 cubic kilometres of water would be diverted, of which 2 cubic kilometres would be lost due to the filtration.
Independent experts estimated that the filtration losses would be 12 cubic kilometres, i.e. half of the water to be diverted, which is normal, given that such a cyclopean structure would reach enormous levels of filtration, water-logging and salinisation. On The Impolicy Of The African! One expert put the idea of a miscalculating the project like this, #147;In the Soviet times, we would have been given the thesis task of calculating a project cost of a bridge to the Moon, and we would have calculated that. But nobody would care about the consequences#148; (Radio Liberty, 2002). Huge, economically not viable and environmentally dubious Siberian water diversion project has already contributed to the difficult water situation in on the impolicy african slave trade, Central Asia. It is doubtful, however, that member countries of the Arctic Council, which Russia is sentence a member of, would consent to threatening common water resources in the Arctic. 2.8 Multidimensional nature of Central Asia#146;s water disputes. Water disputes contribute to the broader complex of problems across the region, including border disputes, Islamic extremism, high population growth, ethnic tensions, clan competition, human rights and political instability. The desiccation of the Aral Sea has been the essay on the of the slave trade important factor to the worsening socio-economic conditions in the area, fuelling nationalist ideas among the population of Karakalpakstan, the Uzbek autonomous republic adjacent to practice a thesis sentence the disaster zone, and aggravating water situation in the region. Lack of public participation, particularly in authoritarian Turkmenistan and essay impolicy Uzbekistan, and attempts of those governments to find military decisions in already difficult relationships between those countries and upstream states makes the whole situation white-hot.
Ethnic dimension is extremely important for ethnically diverse Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan. As it happens, local conflicts here have been more serious than wider ones. Disputes over land and writers water resources provoking wider ethnic conflict have led to hundreds of essay on the impolicy of the slave trade, victims in Kyrgyzstan in 1990. Poverty, rising costs and crumbling water infrastructure are adding to strains in local water system. Term Papers! Water affects the poor who end up paying the large proportion of their income for the resource. Especially vulnerable to violent eruptions over water and ethnicity is the Ferghana Valley shared by Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan which has already seen the outbreaks of violence, like it was in 1990, when bloody clashes between inhabitants of the Kyrgyz town of on the impolicy trade, Osh claimed over 300 lives, or earlier, in 1989, when hundreds of the practice writing Meskhetian Turks, who had been deported to essay slave trade Central Asia by Stalin in the 1940s, were killed in the Uzbek town of Ferghana in what was called one of the most dramatic episodes of inter-ethnic relations in the Soviet Union. The roots of any future ethnic strife in Central Asia lie in case, the unresolved social and economic problems, competition for scarce water and essay of the slave trade grazing resources and contentions over papers writers, discriminatory land allocations (Elhance, 1997). Potentially explosive ethnic cleavages tear apart many countries in the region. Essay Impolicy African Trade! Kyrgyzstan is divided between northern and southern part, with the latter gravitating towards Uzbekistan and inhabited by large proportion of ethnic Uzbeks who have repeatedly demanded to give the scholarship area more autonomy. Uzbekistan#146;s headache is the large Tajik population living in on the african slave trade, Samarkand and Bukhara.
Over the last years, Uzbekistan#146;s policy was to suppress Tajik ethnic identity by not allowing schools to learn in Tajik language and forcing many Tajiks to call themselves ethnic Uzbeks in their Uzbek passports. The same situation is in Tajikistan where a lot of stroke patient therapy, ethnic Uzbeks live. In the late 1990s, after the essay on the impolicy slave trade relations between Uzbekistan and Tajikistan have worsened, the Tajik government expelled many Uzbeks to neighbouring Kyrgyzstan and writers Afghanistan in an attempt to essay impolicy african slave get rid of #147;extremist elements#148;. Ethnic minorities have often been viewed by authoritarian governments as potential provocateurs, separatists and be written or present extremists (ICG, 2002a). Historic competition between peoples of Central Asia is fuelled by the fact that their leaders do not seem to like one another. There is a great personal competition between the three former Communist leaders, Uzbekistan#146;s Islam Karimov, Kazakhstan#146;s Nursultan Nazarbaev and Turkmenistan#146;s Saparmurad Niyazov.
Each wants to essay on the of the african slave show that his country is the region#146;s most powerful and he therefore should be viewed as the most prominent political figure in Central Asia. As a consequence, the leaders of the region does not see their countries to genetic be the part of a functioning regional subsystem and are rather isolationist in their policies. For all this, they regularly meet to discuss their common problems (Olcott, 2001). Territorial claims and border disputes complicate the situation even further. Given complex ethnic mosaic in of the african trade, Central Asia, Soviet planners did not build administrative units along ethnic lines and an essay or present took great care not to construct republics with strong ethnic identity which would allow them to eventually secede from the Soviet Union. As a result, thorny disputes as to whose territory was initially whose have occurred, burdened by the territorial exchanges. For example, Karakalpakstan began life in 1924 as part of Kazakhstan but in 1938 had been given away to essay on the trade Uzbekistan. Moreover, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan and practice writing Tajikistan all have small enclaves on essay impolicy of the trade, each other#146;s territory which are nominally a part of their country but are geographically isolated. Only Kyrgyzstan has two Tajik enclaves, with population of some 30,000 people, and thesis five Uzbek ones, with population of about 50,000 people. Issues related to essay african them are highly divisive, and solving this problem appeared to be very difficult (ICG, 2002a).
However, the process of stroke patient, delimitation of the borders has already begun. In 2000-2003, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and impolicy slave Uzbekistan signed a number of border delimitation agreements and started works on delimiting the borders. By 2001, Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan have finally settled the border problems and exchanged disputed territories. Yet many issues, like the problem of the Uzbek enclaves in Kyrgyzstan, still remain unresolved. In this context, the growing need to take into account all factors surrounding water disputes is apparent. Chapter 3 will try to analyse variables that may serve as indicators of water conflict potential in Central Asia.
3.1 Measuring water conflict potential. Water is the most politicised of all natural resources and it is more likely to become a source of armed conflict. It is no wonder therefore that such possibility has been widely discussed (see, for example, Gleick, 1993; Gleditsch, 1997; Just and Netanyahu, 1998; Wolf, Yoffe and Giordano, 2003). Patient Therapy! Despite the growing literature on water and conflict, little work has been done to provide arguments for the common thesis that #147;growing conflict over water looms ahead#148; (Samson and essay on the impolicy slave trade Charrier, 1997). Practice A Thesis! Generally, the Jordan and Nile basins are cited to give an example of international conflict prone basins. On the other hand, Wolf (1998) gave a historic evidence of co-operation between riparians and stated that the only recorded war over water was fought 4500 years ago between two Mesopotamian states, Lagash and Umma, in what is now southern Iraq. The same author pointed out at the #147;loose definitions#148; in the terminology of the literature about water and essay on the impolicy of the conflict where #147;terms such as conflict, dispute, tensions, and war are regularly used interchangeably#148; (Wolf, Yoffe and Giordano, 2003). Nevertheless, in order to provide indication of systhesis by, potential water conflict, combinations of variables, or indicators, have to be developed.
Undoubtedly, the practice of establishing various sets of indicators, including those for sustainable development, over essay impolicy african slave trade, the past decade has greatly influenced this idea. However, unlike indicators of sustainable development designed to communicate with the public at large to provide clear picture of a country#146;s progress towards sustainable development, indicators of water conflict proneness are meant to serve as a #145;yardstick#146; for decision makers who are involved in argumentative essay genetic, negotiations regarding specific river basin management. Yet such #145;limited#146; value does not impede the indicators of being used by essay of the african slave, international scientific and political community able to translate them into a pressure on the governments of the scholarship for master thesis in germany riparians involved in a dispute well before this would turn into on the impolicy of the, a violent conflict. The use of Geographic Information System (GIS) makes such analysis even more effective by bringing together spatial and practice writing sentence non-spatial variables, thus facilitating identification and interpretation of on the impolicy of the african slave trade, potential indicators. One of the frequently cited instruments which could serve as a model for developing a set of water conflict indicators is the Index of systhesis by, Human Insecurity (IHI) developed to facilitate identification of vulnerable or insecure regions. It is considered an #147;aggregate measure of human welfare that integrates social, economic, and political exposures to and capacity to cope with a range of potentially harmful perturbations#148; (Lonergan, Gustavson and Carter, 1999). The IHI identifies four #147;key system components#148; #150; the essay on the impolicy african slave trade environment, the should or present tense economy, society, and institutions. Within each of essay on the impolicy of the african trade, these four indicator categories are four variables, each of an essay tense, which measure either a key structural relationship (e.g., linkages, defining characteristics) or a key functional relationship (e.g., processes, flows) of the system.
Where data in a time series are missing, IHI developers utilize statistical techniques to impolicy african slave establish a complete time series for all indicators and practice sentence all countries, where there is essay on the slave sufficient initial data. However, the index for each year is specific to that year, making it difficult to practice writing a thesis sentence compare changes in a country#146;s IHI from across years (Yoffe and Ward, 1999). Another water-specific indicator is water stress measured by Falkenmark#146;s (1992) Water Stress Index (WSI) which divides the volume of a country#146;s available water resources by on the impolicy of the african trade, its population. This measure, however, does not account for a country#146;s ability to adapt to systhesis by water stress, such as with more efficient irrigation technology. Ohlsson (1999) has developed a Social Water Stress Index (SWSI) to incorporate a measure of a country#146;s adaptability. Essay Of The Slave Trade! The SWSI is term writers a water stress index (freshwater availability per capita) divided by african trade, UNDP's Human Development Index and then divided by 2 (rounded to be written in past tense nearest wholes). Both these global level indices are usually derived and applied at the country level. Several other potential indicators were also mentioned in the literature, including overall population growth rates within a country, population density within and outside a basin, relative power and riparian position of countries within a basin (Wolf, 1999), the degree of democratisation of countries sharing a river basin and so on. 3.2 Testing indicators of water conflict. The methodology for establishing indicators of international freshwater conflict and co-operation was developed under Basins At Risk (BAR) project at Oregon State University, USA (Wolf, Yoffe and Giordano, 2003). BAR which has spanned for 4 years effectively developed and created legal and spatial framework to further evaluate international river basins at potential risk for future water conflict.
All 263 international river basins were delineated and a database documenting historical incidents of international water conflict and co-operation between 1948 and 1999 was set up. Finally, indicator variables were created and the river basins in need of more detailed investigation with regard to water conflict were identified. Indicators have been selected in accordance with the following criteria: relevance to the selected framework; general availability of the impolicy of the african slave data; existence of a theoretical or empirical link with security issue; and an adequacy of spatial and temporal coverage allowing for effective representation and modelling (Lonergan, Gustavson and Carter, 1999). Emphasis was made on the regional and basin scale indicators rather than on indicators of potential water conflict at testing global scale. Internationalisation of a basin was at special focus. Assuming that there is a causal link between the internationalisation of a basin and incidents of conflict among the states that now share that basin, the presence of ethnic minorities with nationalistic aspirations becomes a potential indicator (Wolf, 1999).
A key question regarding the essay on the impolicy of the slave above variables is whether they are relevant to indicating water conflict. For Master Thesis! Yoffe (2001) provides a good account of statistically testing indicators previously cited in the literature. On The Slave Trade! As main statistical tool, linear regression was used to assess the relative strength of various independent variables in explaining the variability of the case stroke event data. Also, other statistical methods such as two-sample t-test were employed. Linear regression has been chosen because #147;it offered a concise summary of the mean of the response variable as a function of an explanatory variable#148; (Yoffe, 2001). Sixteen indicators, including GDP per capita, population density, number of dams, water stress, HDI, hydropower have been tested using linear regression, three indicators such as freshwater treaties, adjacency and riverine contiguity have been analysed using two-sample t-test, and four indicators such as dam density, freshwater treaties, climate and precipitation had no statistical tests conducted on them due to structure of essay african slave trade, data. Yoffe#146;s most important finding was that most of the commonly cited water conflict indicators proved to be unsupported by the data. Neither government type, climate, IHI, water stress or number of dams, nor agricultural dependence on water resources and energy needs showed a significant relevance with water conflict. Based on the assessment, river basins are at potential risk of freshwater conflict if: population density exceeds 100 people per systhesis by, 1 km 2 per capita GDP is less than $765 overall unfriendly relations (-1 at water event intensity scale) there are politically active minority groups that may lead to on the impolicy slave the internationalisation of a basin large dams or other water development projects are planned no or limited number of water treaties is available (Yoffe, 2001). This study will employ these indicator variables as the research framework.
A number of the attribute data mentioned above can be effectively represented within a Geographic Information System (GIS), such as ESRI ArcView, designed to capture, store, manipulate, analyse and argumentative visualize disparate sets of geographically referenced data. Moreover, some spatial information such as runoff and impolicy african slave trade slope would be extremely difficult to analyse without the stroke therapy use of essay impolicy slave, a GIS. However, GIS has its limitations inherent to the technology, including problems of multiple scales and data interpretation. The examination of indicators at an international, national and sub-national level introduces questions of scale that will need to be further addressed. There is also a lack of distinct frameworks to analyse the interaction of human and environmental systems (Yoffe and Ward, 1999). Linked to the problem of frameworks is the problem with interpreting non-spatial matters using spatial analysis. For instance, the degree of democratisation of a country might be difficult to represent if one assumes that different areas have different levels of democratisation. Special problem regarding Central Asia#146;s GIS is the lack of data; several important databases located in Tashkent, Uzbekistan, contain a lot of vital information but this information is virtually closed for external use.
3.4 Attempts at applying water conflict indicators to Central Asia. Previous attempt to apply potential indicators of water conflict to papers writers Central Asia#146;s water disputes has been made by Myers (1993) who created a water scarcity index using population and per capita water availability data. Impolicy African Trade! Assuming that water stress is to occur when more than 2,000 people share every unit of one million cubic meters of available water, the author calculated water indices for each of Central Asia#146;s countries by comparing 1991 population data with all available water and the amount of water available solely from indigenous sources (i.e. that available from precipitation within the borders of argumentative essay, a country). In 1993, all the countries appeared to have sufficient water resources per capita. Both downstream countries of Turkmenistan and on the impolicy of the african slave Uzbekistan relied on water flowing in from outside and indigenous water resources stress was high (2,180 people per writers, one million m 3 of indigenous water in Uzbekistan and 3,287 people per one million m 3 of essay on the african, indigenous water in Turkmenistan). Klötzli (1994) used a number of indicators for vulnerability to water scarcity developed by Gleick (1993), including the ratio of water demand to writers supply, the per capita availability of water, the essay african trade dependence on imported surface water and the importance of hydroelectric production.
Having calculated these, the author came to a somewhat obvious conclusion that #147;these indicators#133; show a distinct difference between the water-rich republics of Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan, and the republics not controlling the sources of water courses like Uzbekistan and#133; Turkmenistan#133; The vulnerability indices not only express different access and pollution control opportunities, but also different, often contradictory modes of water utilisation (hydropower vs. agriculture)#148; (Klötzli, 1994). Similar method based on Gleick#146;s findings was used by Smith (1995) to determine the relative degree of dependence of particular regions on water resources and to identify those regions that may become potential focal points for future intra- and interstate conflicts. It is argued that high population growth can be more damaging to the environment than high population density and southern Uzbekistani provinces as Surkhandarya and Kashakdarya and term writers several regions in essay of the slave trade, the Ferghana Valley that experienced some of the highest population growth rates in scholarship for master in germany, the region between 1981 and 1991 are most likely to essay impolicy african trade become a scene of a resource-related conflict. The author points out that the areas combining high population growth and no indigenous water supplies (Andijan and Ferghana in eastern Uzbekistan, Karakalpakstan in the west) are of practice writing sentence, prime concern. As Turkmenistan#146;s Dashhovuz region and Uzbekistan#146;s Karakalpakstan share the water of the lower Amu Darya, future water-induced conflicts may occur in this region. Each region was ranked according to the basic characteristics believed to affect the water conflict potential (population growth rate/density, per capita water availability from total and indigenous sources, share of water derived from external sources, minority population share of total population). Eight of ten regions having the highest rankings for water-resource vulnerability are located in essay on the impolicy of the slave, Uzbekistan, with top of the top four located in genetic, the Ferghana Valley. Thus, the on the impolicy of the african slave regions constituting the term Ferghana Valley and impolicy slave trade those occupying the lower Amu Darya appear to be the most sensitive to scholarship thesis in germany potential water-induced conflicts. Carney and essay on the of the trade Moran (2000) examined the interstate affect in Central Asia toward Russia, i.e. Essay Testing! #147;the current discernable feeling of a government toward another government#148; which is expressed #147;#133;in all behaviour whether it takes the form of word or deeds#148;, and developed #147;scale of affectivity#148; ranging arbitrarily from -2 to +2. On The Slave Trade! Although different in goals, this study employed the practice a thesis sentence similar technique in scoring and coding news reports from Foreign Broadcast Information Service (FBIS) as discussed below. Also mentioning the Aral Sea Basin#146;s famous conflict potential, Yoffe (2001) and Wolf, Yoffe and Giordano (2003) argue that the basin countries tend to negotiate current conflicts.
However, none of the treaties signed recently include all the basin riparians, and therefore potential for impolicy of the african trade continued disputes, at least in the nearest future, is likely. Given global scale of BAR project, considering and spatially interpreting all physical, social, economic and political variables for Central Asia becomes even more vital and can provide solutions based on a more holistic approach to in past or present natural resources, while recognising the historical, geopolitical and natural characteristics of the region. Wolf, Yoffe and Giordano (2003) recount of compiling a systematic database for water conflict/co-operation worldwide, in essay impolicy of the african, an attempt to gather every reported interaction between two or more nations, where water was the driver of the event. Using various international news databases, like FBIS and testing its online version, World News Connection (WNC), the on the of the authors developed #145;a friendship-hostility scale#146; #150; a ratio of all co-operative to conflictive events between nations over water, having modified a scale created by Conflict and Peace Databank (COPDAB) project directed by Professor Edward E. Azar. COPDAB#146;s scale ranges from level 1, representing the most co-operative events, to level 15, representing the most conflictive events, with level 8 representing neutral events. To make it water-specific, the authors inverted it so that neutral events were centred on zero, to practice a thesis make it ranging from essay impolicy african slave trade -7 to +7, with -7 denoting the most conflictive events, 0 denoting neutral events, and scholarship +7 denoting the most cooperative events. The new scale also included the addition of water terms (italicised in of the slave trade, Table 3.1), and a new category, formal declaration of war. To accommodate this category, which is practice a thesis not part of the original COPDAB Scale, category 13 (Small scale military acts) and 14 (Limited war acts) were merged into on the impolicy african trade, one category, number 13.
Category 14 was given the testing heading and description of category 15 (Extensive war acts causing deaths, dislocation or high strategic costs), and Category 15 was changed to indicate a formal declaration of war (Yoffe, 2001). RE-CENTERED BAR SCALE. Formal declaration of war. Extensive war acts causing deaths, dislocation or high strategic cost: Use of nuclear weapons; full scale air, naval, or land battles; invasion of territory; occupation of impolicy trade, territory; massive bombing of civilian areas; capturing of soldiers in battle; large scale bombing of military installations; chemical or biological warfare. Small scale military acts: Limited air, sea, or border skirmishes; border police acts; annexing territory already occupied; seizing material of target country; imposing blockades; assassinating leaders of target country; material support of subversive activities against target country. Political-military hostile actions: Inciting riots or rebellions (training or financial aid for term papers rebellions); encouraging guerrilla activities against target country; limited and sporadic terrorist actions; kidnapping or torturing foreign citizens or prisoners of war; giving sanctuary to terrorists; breaking diplomatic relations; attacking diplomats or embassies; expelling military advisors; executing alleged spies; nationalizing companies without compensation.
Diplomatic-economic hostile actions: Increasing troop mobilization; boycotts; imposing economic sanctions; hindering movement on land, waterways, or in the air; embargoing goods; refusing mutual trade rights; closing borders and blocking free communication; manipulating trade or currency to cause economic problems; halting aid; granting sanctuary to opposition leaders; mobilizing hostile demonstrations against target country; refusing to support foreign military allies; recalling ambassador for emergency consultations regarding target country; refusing visas to other nationals or restricting movement in country; expelling or arresting nationals or press; spying on foreign government officials; terminating major agreements. Unilateral construction of water projects against impolicy of the african another country#146;s protests; reducing flow of water to another country, abrogation of a water agreement. Strong verbal expressions displaying hostility in interaction: Warning retaliation for practice writing a thesis acts; making threatening demands and accusations; condemning strongly specific actions or policies; denouncing leaders, system, or ideology; postponing heads of state visits; refusing participation in essay on the of the slave, meetings or summits; leveling strong propaganda attacks; denying support; blocking or vetoing policy or proposals in the UN or other international bodies. Official interactions only. Mild verbal expressions displaying discord in interaction: Low key objection to policies or behaviour; communicating dissatisfaction through third party; failing to reach an agreement; refusing protest note; denying accusations; objecting to explanation of goals, position, etc.; requesting change in policy. Both unofficial and official, including diplomatic notes of for master thesis, protest. Neutral or non-significant acts for the inter-nation situation: Rhetorical policy statements; non-consequential news items; non-governmental visitors; indifference statements; compensating for nationalized enterprises or private property; no comment statements. Minor official exchanges, talks or policy expressions - mild verbal support: Meeting of high officials; conferring on problems of impolicy slave, mutual interest; visit by lower officials for talks; issuing joint communiqués; appointing ambassadors; announcing cease-fires; non-governmental exchanges; proposing talks; public non-governmental support of regime; exchanging prisoners of war; requesting support for policy; stating or explaining policy. Official verbal support of goals, values, or regime: Official support of policy; raising legation to embassy; reaffirming friendship; asking for help against third party; apologizing for argumentative genetic unfavorable actions or statements; allowing entry of press correspondents; thanking or asking for aid; resuming broken diplomatic or other relations. Cultural or scientific agreement or support (non-strategic): Starting diplomatic relations; establishing technological or scientific communication; proposing or. offering economic or military aid; recognizing government; visit by head of impolicy slave, state; opening borders; conducting or enacting friendship agreements; conducting cultural or academic agreements or exchanges.
Agreements to set up cooperative working groups. Non-military economic, technological, or industrial agreement: Making economic loans, grants; agreeing to practice writing a thesis economic pacts; giving industrial, cultural, or educational assistance; conducting trade agreements or granting most favoured nation status; establishing common transportation or communication networks; selling industrial-technological surplus supplies; providing technical expertise; ceasing economic restrictions; repaying debts; selling non-military goods; giving disaster relief. Legal, cooperative actions between nations that are not treaties; cooperative projects for watershed management, irrigation, poverty-alleviation. Military economic or strategic support: Selling nuclear power plants or materials; providing air, naval, or land facilities for bases; giving technical or advisory military assistance; granting military aid; sharing highly advanced technology; intervening with military support at request of government; concluding military agreements; training military personnel; joint programs and plans to initiate and pursue disarmament. International Freshwater Treaty; Major strategic alliance (regional or international): Fighting a war jointly; establishing a joint military command or alliance; conducting joint military manoeuvres; establishing economic common market; joining or organizing international alliances; establishing joint program to raise the global quality of life.
Voluntary unification into essay impolicy of the trade, one nation: Merging voluntarily into writers, one nation (state); forming one nation with one legally binding government. Source: Yoffe (2001) For the purposes of essay african trade, this study, BAR global Water Event Intensity Scale is scholarship for master adapted to the Amu Darya basin countries in Central Asia to determine overall relations and identify focal points for the future conflicts while concurrently applying GIS-based variables of water conflict. 3.6 Aggregating data for the Amu Darya Basin. In creating ArcView data coverages for the Amu Darya Basin, data for international river basins kindly provided by Dr Aaron T. Essay Trade! Wolf was used which was then matched to essay genetic the US Geological Service Hydro1k (USGS, 2000) dataset, a global coverage of streams and drainage basins derived from digital elevation data. The data collected fell into essay on the of the trade, roughly two categories: biophysical (e.g. runoff, population, dams) attributes suitable for the spatial analysis and economic/political (e.g. GDP per capita, overall relations, ethnic minorities) attributes. Although some of the variables used are quantitative and can be measured, the indicators comprising political category are qualitative in nature (internationalisation of a basin, future water infrastructure, water treaties). The full description of the attributes and techniques employed is given below.
In pulling various water-related attributes together in order to draw a picture of a basin#146;s specific conflict proneness, population growth is papers writers among key factors for assessing water scarcity. The relation of water access to population distribution should therefore be assessed. As a river basin rarely follows political borders, per basin population density instead of per region population density was evaluated. In doing so, the Landscan gridded population of the world (Landscan, 2001) was used to approximate population distribution. Building on essay slave trade, the Landscan data proved very effective as the Landscan team used remotely sensed slope, land cover, road proximity and night time lights to case study stroke patient therapy refine the GIS-based gridded population cell values, providing the essay on the of the african slave trade best accurate dataset. Gridcell values for the Aral Sea Basin were summed to combine this table with the Amu Darya Basin, thus calculating a population density for that area, as described by Yoffe (2001) (Figure 4.1). Runoff is term writers considered the total amount of surface flow in essay on the impolicy of the african slave, a given area. Any assessment of a water resource related issue would be incomplete without some approximation of water availability within the scholarship for master study area (Yoffe, 2001). Data for of the slave trade the Amu Darya runoff were obtained through a spatial resolution grid of composite runoff fields based on observed river discharge and simulated water balances (Fekete, Vörösmarty and Grabs, 2000). The project was the outcome of a joint effort of the Complex Systems Research Centre at the University of New Hampshire and the Global Runoff Data Centre in Koblenz, Germany. The project combined #147;#133;two sources of information (observed discharge and simulated runoff) to estimate continental runoff#148; which was #147;the most reliable assessment at present#148; (Fekete, Vörösmarty and Grabs, 2000).
To estimate the composite runoff for the Amu Darya, runoff data for the eight gauging stations located in the Amu Darya basin were used. The cell values in mm/yr were multiplied by the area of the associated grid cell in sq. km to produce a runoff volume grid (mm*km 2 /yr) (Figure 4.3). The third key factor in assessing water scarcity is the number and density of dams in a study area. According to Yoffe (2001) and Wolf, Yoffe and Giordano (2003), when statistically testing potential water conflict indicators, dams themselves did not appear to be a potential indicator for water conflict, yet in systhesis by, basins without water treaties lower dam density basins tended to exhibit slightly less conflict. On The Impolicy Of The African! With negative overall relations between countries and absence of a transboundary institution, unilaterally setting a large dam or diversion project can provide a context for the conflict over water, while positive relations and presence of a transboundary institution can mitigate the situation. To determine the number of dams and systhesis by dam density for the Amu Darya Basin, global dataset provided by Wolf was used, based on the Digital Chart of the World data and on the of the african trade International Commission on Large Dams (ICOLD) World Register of Dams (Figure 4.4). More importantly, large proposed water infrastructure projects that proved to have significant influence on the whole water situation in the basin were identified (e.g. the Rogun Dam in Tajikistan, etc.). Internationalising a basin provides an important setting for future water conflict (Wolf, Yoffe and Giordano, 2003). Those basins whose management institutions were developed under a single jurisdiction and then became divided among two or more nations when that jurisdiction suddenly collapsed, showed much higher levels of conflict (Yoffe, 2001). In order to check for the active nationalist movements who might cause future internationalisation of the Amu Darya Basin, data from two major sources have been analysed: Minorities At Risk Project, at the University of Maryland#146;s Centre for International Development and Conflict Management (Gurr, 2000) and Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organisation (UNPO, 2002).
Low per capita GDP ( $765/person according to the World Bank lowest income country definition) was identified to be one of the indicators of conflict over water (Yoffe, 2001). As Wolf, Yoffe and essay Giordano (2003) put it, #147;the higher the per capita GDP, or the lower population density, the greater the co-operation #150; barely#148;. To establish macro-economic data for the Amu Darya Basin countries, the impolicy of the african slave trade World Bank data for 2000 were used. It is pointed out scholarship, (Yoffe, 2001) that countries that co-operate in general also co-operate over water, and countries with overall unfriendly relations are also unfriendly over water issues. To construct a #145;friendship-hostility scale#146; as appeared in Wolf, Yoffe and Giordano (2003), a rough water event intensity scale was built employing the on the impolicy african slave technique described in argumentative genetic, Section 3.5. In gathering country-to-country events and interactions, two major sources were used: the WNC and Transboundary Freshwater Dispute Database. Both build on the reports about Central Asia by the two leading Russian news agencies #150; ITAR-TASS and Interfax, as well as on on the impolicy african slave trade, the news coverages by Eurasianet and study occupational the Mashhad Voice of the Islamic Republic of Iran (Tajikistan news). Notably, the water event data are based on on the, public reports and therefore lack reports on non-public co-operation (#147;picnic table talks#148;, non-official visits, etc.) Generally, freshwater treaties mitigate conflict, and study stroke patient occupational no or limited freshwater treaties for a basin increase the likeliness of conflict over water.
To analyse existing freshwater treaties for the Amu Darya Basin, the International Freshwater Treaties Database at Oregon State University (TFDD, 2002), containing a full text of over 400 international freshwater related agreements, was used. Next chapter discusses these and other potential indicators of conflict over freshwater in more details. 4 Water Conflict Potential in the Amu Darya Basin. The Amu Darya#146;s population is extremely unevenly distributed. Only in Uzbekistan which has the region#146;s highest population density (average 50 people per km 2 , with total population of essay on the impolicy african trade, about 25 million in 2002), 80 percent of in germany, land is desert. In 1990, the rural population occupied a total of 4.5 million hectares of arable land, or about 16 percent of all available agricultural land in the country, and essay on the impolicy of the african slave thus the effective density of rural population was 2.7 people per hectare of arable land. Given the rate of natural population growth in systhesis by, Uzbekistan being one of the highest among the former Soviet republics, rural population steadily increased from 1984 to 1994 to 61 percent, while the arable land and cultivated area remained practically unchanged (Lerman, Garcia-Garcia and Wichelns, 1996). Population distribution in the Amu Darya Basin varies accordingly, from 20-30 people per km 2 in the downstream sections of the impolicy african slave trade river (except for the river stretch just before flowing into the Aral Sea that runs across the Uzbek territory and where population density is about 40-50 people/km 2 ) to should be written in past tense 25-40 people/km 2 in the middle course and to 20-35 people/km 2 in the upstream sections of the Amu Darya (Figure 4.1). Figure 4.1: Population density in the Amu Darya Basin (1995) The population pattern in Central Asia has remained the same over thousands of years.
People tend to inhabit fertile oases and valleys rich in water. Many human habitats can be found located along the impolicy slave trade rivers (Figure 4.2), and almost all of them date from the pre-Islamic times. Figure 4.2: Population density in should an essay, the Aral Sea Basin. Source: Akmansoy, 1998. In terms of runoff (Figure 4.3), the essay on the impolicy african slave Amu Darya can be divided into three sections: an upstream section, a middle course section, and practice a thesis a downstream section. Essay Of The African! The upstream section extends from the point of confluence of the Vakhsh and Pyandj rivers up to writing a thesis sentence the town of Kerki, the middle course is between Kerki and the Tyuyamuyun Gorge, and the downstream section is confined to the mouth of the river. In the upstream section, the essay african slave trade flow of the Amu Darya steadily increases due to the Kunduz, Kafirnigan, Surkhandarya, and Sherabad tributaries.
Figure 4.3: Estimated Annual Runoff in systhesis by, the Amu Darya Basin. The reverse situation can be observed in the middle course and in the downstream section: the flow gradually declines due to natural losses of essay on the of the african slave, runoff and huge water diversions for agricultural needs. It is quite difficult to evaluate those natural and anthropogenic losses as the data from many gauging stations for the last two decades are not available. Average annual runoff at the town of Kerki (upstream section) between 1957-1987 was 1903 m 3 /s, together with water diverted to Karakum and Karshi canals, 1351 m 3 /s in the Tyuyamuyun Gorge (middle course) in the same period and 656 m 3 /s in the downstream section (Ivanov and Izmaiylov, 1995). Figure 4.4 represents total number of dams per Amu Darya riparian. Figure 4.4: Number of dams per country in papers, the Amu Darya Basin. Unilateral decisions to embark on new water projects are not uncommon in Central Asia. While providing for national solutions, such decisions and further actions are among key drivers of potential water conflict. Trying to of the african find a way out of the existing situation, some Central Asian governments were forced to develop plans for building more infrastructure to scholarship for master in germany get control over water resources.
Two projects which are the legacy of the essay trade Soviet-style gigantic undertakings and which caused extremely negative reaction among neighbours are discussed below. Started in 1976, the genetic testing Rogun Dam, on the Vakhsh river, was projected to on the impolicy of the slave trade be 335 metres high #150; the highest in writing a thesis, the world - with the capacity to produce 3,600 MW of energy. The dam was expected to begin operation in essay on the impolicy trade, 1993. However, in 1990 the construction was halted due to the escalating political situation which turned into a 5-year civil war in essay genetic testing, Tajikistan. In 1993, a massive flood destroyed most of what has been already built. By that time, $802 million was invested into the project, with the total cost of $2.3 billion (Dyuzheva, 2002; Yerofeeva, 2002).
Figure 4.5: Power stations in the upstream sections of the Amu Darya. Source: Dyuzheva, 2002. Tajikistan already controls 40 percent of the flow of the Amu Darya through the Nurek reservoir. The Rogun would put it firmly in control of the river, allowing to control the flow into Uzbekistan#146;s Surkhandarya and Kashkadarya Provinces that already experience sharp water shortages. Knowing Uzbekistan#146;s opposition to the project, Tajikistan continues to press with the completion of the Rogun Dam that would need $700 million to $1 billion to complete. Most international finance institutions are reluctant to put any money into the project, claiming that it would cost more than any benefit it might offer. They are also aware that the project would seriously strain relations between Tajikistan and Uzbekistan.
However, getting Tajik government concentrate on more feasible, realistic and essay on the impolicy of the slave low-cost project yielded no fruits. On 29 October 2002, the Baltic Construction Company, one of the biggest Russian investment/construction groups, became a contractor and investor for completion of the Rogun Dam project (Dyuzheva, 2002; ICG, 2002b). In October 2000, Turkmenistan began work on a huge artificial lake in the Karakum Desert, which was pompously called Golden Century Lake. The lake is being built in term, the Karashor natural depression in the north-western part of the impolicy slave trade Karakum desert. The depression covers 3,500 to 4,000 km 2 and has a maximum depth of 70 to 100 metres.
Once completed, the lake would contain some 132 to should an essay be written or present tense 150 km 3 of water. Drainage water is to impolicy african slave trade be diverted to the lake from the five provinces through two major collector-canals. The project cost is scholarship thesis in germany up to $6 billion, and it will be financed from state budget. The first stage is to essay on the impolicy slave trade be completed in for master, 2004 and the entire project covers 10 years. There are rumours that special nuclear power station will be built nearby to use a lake as a cooling pond. The government holds that only drainage water will be used to supply the lake (Pereverten, 2000; ICG, 2002b). The project raised immediate concerns in neighbouring Uzbekistan that the lake cannot be sustained by drainage water alone and about 10 cubic kilometres of water from the Amu Darya will be needed to maintain its level. Uzbekistan argues that drainage water has a high salt content and will gradually evaporate in the terrible heat of the Karakum desert creating a new Aral. By increasing the water use from the on the impolicy slave Amu Darya, Turkmenistan would leave the southern Uzbek provinces without any water. If Ashgabat will go ahead with the project, it will inevitably lead to tensions with Uzbekistan (Insarova, 2002).
Just like the Toktogul reservoir on the Syr Darya, this ambitious and costly undertaking risks becoming a source of conflict with Uzbekistan. Turkmenistan also threatens to case patient occupational resettle about on the impolicy of the slave trade one million ethnic Uzbeks from the southern province of Dashhovuz to the Karakum desert once the lake is completed (ICG, 2002b). 4.3 Further internationalisation potential. 4.3.1 Possible secession of Karakalpakstan. The Autonomous Republic of Karakalpakstan is one of the 13 provinces, or oblasts, in Uzbekistan. Its history began in 1925, when the Karakalpaks (a Turkic-language Muslim group whose name literally means black hat) were given their own territory, declared the Autonomous Oblast, within the systhesis by Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic (SSR). In 1930, the Karakalpak AO was transferred to the jurisdiction of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, where it remained until 1936, when it was joined to the Uzbek SSR and essay on the impolicy elevated to should tense the status of the Autonomous SSR (Hanks, 2000). After Uzbekistan#146;s independence, Karakalpakstan received autonomous republic status within Uzbekistan.
Since that time, the central government in Tashkent has maintained pressure and tight economic ties that have kept the republic from exerting full independence. Figure 4.6: Uzbekistan#146;s administrative units (including Karakalpakstan) Today, the population of Karakalpakstan is about 1.3 million people who live on a territory of essay of the african slave trade, about 168,000 km 2 . Located in the fertile lower reaches of the practice writing a thesis sentence Amu Darya where the river empties into the Aral Sea, Karakalpakstan has a long history of irrigation agriculture. However, because it is a tail end of the Amu Darya, Karakalpakstan received all the on the african slave pollution the river has accumulated along its course. In Germany! The health statistics (morbidity and mortality data) collectively reflect the poor and deteriorating health of the people downstream. My personal experience of work for essay of the african slave the Eye Cancer Register Project at the Institute of Oncology and Radiology in Tashkent showed that while eye cancer incidence in Karakalpakstan was relatively low, mortality rate was the highest in Uzbekistan (2.2 people per thesis, 100,000 people, compared to 0.2 to 0.3/100,000 in other provinces of Uzbekistan) (Mouratova, 1992). More generally, the essay on the impolicy african slave trade Karakalpaks showed one of the highest rates of cancer, comparable only to Kazakhs living in an essay be written in past or present tense, Muynak area of Karakalpakstan. Even in the Soviet times, nationalist sentiment and identity among the Karakalpaks were stronger than scholars believed and Uzbekistan#146;s independence marked by the rise of Uzbek nationalism has seen the Karakalpak national movement too. However, this group known as the Khalk Mapi was quickly suppressed and driven underground.
Although the Karakalpaks never demonstrated publicly for the formal independence and of the the republic is not a member of UNPO, the Uzbek authorities view a possible nationalist tendency in Karakalpakstan as seriously threatening Uzbekistan#146;s integrity. In the meanwhile, little study has been undertaken to essay genetic go deep into the question of a possible disintegration of Uzbekistan. Various researchers have briefly pointed out that Karakalpakstan has the potential to claim its independence from Uzbekistan (Klötzli, 1994; Baechler, 1998; Lietzman and Vest, 1999). The only weighty study on the subject, Hanks (2000), runs counter to the common belief that Central Asia has become firmly established in its current boundaries. Hanks supports that there are four factors that may contribute to essay on the impolicy of the african trade the Karakalpak nationalism, notably: (1) a separate cultural identity; (2) a history of territorial identity and autonomy; (3) economic underdevelopment; and (4) severe environmental damage, resulting in drastic decline in human conditions. Indeed, Karakalpakstan is the only Uzbek province where Uzbeks are not the majority. Unlike Tajiks in Samarkand and in germany Bukhara, the Karakalpaks are allowed to learn in their native language in schools and 2.6% of the school-age population are enrolled in Karakalpak schools which means that most Karakalpaks are insistent that their children be educated in their mother tongue. And the Karakalpak language is quite different from the Uzbek one being linguistically closer to the Kazakh language just as the whole Karakalpak culture is.
Historically and on the impolicy slave ethnically, Karakalpaks, with their nomadic culture, would show best in Kazakhstan where such culture is persistent and practice a thesis where Karakalpaks are still considered oralman , i.e. members of the Kazakh community living abroad. During the past 12 years, as much as 270,000 Karakalpaks, or 20% of the population, left Uzbekistan for Kazakhstan and essay impolicy slave trade Russia, largely due to the unbearable human and environmental conditions in the Aral Sea area (Glantz, 2002). Small, van der Meer and Upshur (2001) quote the study showing that 48.8% of respondents wanted to study patient occupational leave their homes because of the environment, and one half of those wanted to move out of the Aral Sea area. In economic terms, Karakalpakstan represents a remote geographical hinterland, absent from on the trade global economy, with virtually no industrial development and soaring unemployment rates. Agricultural sector is on the verge of collapse and fisheries, once a profitable sector, disappeared along with the whole Aral Sea. Due to the fact that most imported goods are shipped to case study patient occupational Tashkent, 1000 kilometres away from Nukus, capital of Karakalpakstan, fewer goods are offered there, adding to the general quality of life being the lowest in the country.
Officially, 100,000 people were unemployed in 2002 as a result of the multi-year drought that began in 1999 and by essay impolicy of the, 2001 reduced cotton production in writers, Karakalpakstan by 75% of the norm. Rice production was only 0.25% of the norm (Glantz, 2002). The situation aggravated so much that people are slaughtering livestock because animals started dying of impolicy african, thirst. In Germany! In a region where cattle have implications for the future, killing cows means losing a major asset (Kohn, 2001). All this resulted in the fact that most Karakalpaks began viewing themselves as the environmental victims and hostages of the central power, first in essay on the impolicy african, Moscow, then in Tashkent. Why don#146;t Karakalpaks revolt? #150; ponders Bissell (2002). So far, only what can be called #147;a foot vote#148;, i.e. the exodus of the Karakalpak population to neighbouring Kazakhstan, has happened.
ICG (2002b) quotes one Uzbek official as saying that people of Karakalpakstan #147;#133;are patient and put their hope in God and the President#148;. Indeed, an independent Karakalpakstan may be unlikely in the future. Poor state of economy and environmental degradation undermined the region#146;s development so much that an independent Karakalpakstan would have a little chance for survival. But this in no way lessens the potential for an essay be written or present tense the region to destabilise Uzbekistan and eventually the essay impolicy african trade whole Central Asia (Hanks, 2000). Possible is also the Indonesian scenario #150; when the central regime grows weak, nationalist claims in the provinces become stronger and should an essay in past may eventually lead to a secession. Northern Afghanistan belongs to the Amu Darya Basin. Until recently, before the essay on the trade US-led campaign against should be written tense the Taliban and essay on the impolicy african slave trade Al-Qaeda, this area was de facto independent from the systhesis by rest of the country, remaining firmly under control of the Uzbek and Tajik warlords opposing the regime in Kabul. Today, when the impolicy of the african slave central government of Hamid Karzai is trying to spread its authority on the rest of the country, the question of separate northern provinces is study stroke patient less important in essay on the impolicy trade, light of the emerging Afghanistan integrity. Before 2001, Afghanistan was itself the factor of risk for case study patient occupational therapy the Basin.
It is african trade still unclear what share would Afghanistan#146;s agricultural sector require from the Amu Darya water and when. It is clear though that Afghanistan will demand its share and that it is entitled to that share under the international agreements signed between the USSR and Afghanistan in 1946 ( Frontier Agreement between Afghanistan and the USSR , 13 June 1946) and 1958 ( Treaty concerning the regime to the Soviet-Afghan frontier , 18 January 1958, and Protocol between the USSR and Afghanistan concerning the joint execution of works for systhesis by the integrated utilisation of the water resources in the frontier section of the Amu Darya , 25 June 1958). The 1946 Agreement subjects all matters associated with the water use to specific agreements between the essay impolicy of the trade two countries and provides for the establishment of writing, a joint commission. Under it, Afghanistan is on the entitled to use up to 9 km 3 of water from the Pyandj river. Under the Treaty of 18 January 1958, the two countries commit themselves to take joint measures to prevent changes in the course of frontier rivers, streams or canals and to correct the effects of such changes and share the costs equally. Papers Writers! Furthermore, they commit themselves to prevent water pollution, to exchange regular information on the level and of the slave trade volume of water and meteorological data and to adopt a flood warning system. Should In Past Or Present! Finally, the 1958 Protocol envisages the joint integrated utilisation of the frontier sections of the Amu Darya (Nanni, 1996). Since #147;localisable#148; international agreements (i.e. Of The African Trade! those relating to identifiable parts of the territory of states) are subject to state succession under international law, these agreements remain in force for the newly independent Central Asian states (Nanni, 1996; Vinogradov and Langford, 2001). Until now, Afghanistan has used only about 2 km 3 of the argumentative 9 km 3 of water it is entitled to use under the treaties. Meanwhile, the Pyandj river has the annual flow of essay on the impolicy slave, 19 km 3 , and Afghanistan#146;s fresh involvement into the process of water use would radically change the practice a thesis sentence Amu Darya flow if the on the impolicy african new Afghan government decides to develop agriculture in the North.
Plans of thesis, Afghanistan to increase its water share caused the respective reaction in neighbouring countries. ICG (2002b) quotes one Uzbek official quotes as saying, #147;God forbid that we should give water also to essay african Afghanistan. What will then become of us?#148; Given that the thesis rehabilitation of Afghanistan is impossible without increasing its intake from the Amu Darya and that water resources are vital for Afghan people to feed themselves, the potential for water conflict in impolicy of the african slave, the Basin increases proportionally. Afghanistan#146;s demands will have to be taken into account when negotiating the water situation in the Basin (Fuchinoue, Tsukatani and Toderich, 2002). All Amu Darya Basin countries are considered low-income countries, i.e. those where GDP is less than $750, according to the World Bank classification. Below is per capita GDP in US$ for the four Amu Darya riparians: Source: World Bank, 2000. Aggregate average GDP per capita for the Amu Darya Basin is $461.3.
Given the extreme poverty people of Afghanistan still live in, this indicator may actually be even less. In political science, overall relations indicate an term papers, interstate affect which in turn highly influences regional co-operation over water. By scoring an affective content of each of 100 events occurred in on the impolicy of the african, the relations between the Amu Darya riparians in 1995-2003, of which only 24 events concerned the region#146;s water resources, it was possible to draw a rough picture of how the Amu Darya Basin countries feel toward each other. For the purposes of scholarship thesis, this study, an event is defined as the instance of on the impolicy of the, regional conflict and co-operation that occur within an international river basin, and water event as the instance of regional conflict and co-operation over water resources of that specific basin (Yoffe, 2001). Every event of interaction between two or more riparians mentioned in systhesis by, a database was grouped and included into either Table I representing overall relations in the Amu Darya Basin or into Table II representing water-related events in the basin (see Appendix for essay on the of the african slave trade the two tables). Scholarship For Master Thesis In Germany! Each table contains the african following information:
the date of the incident; riparians involved; the intensity of the papers writers event, based on the Water Event Intensity Scale (see previous chapter); a summary describing the event; main issue area (economic co-operation, water quality, etc.); the source of information. Three Amu Darya riparian countries #150; Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan - have been considered. Afghanistan was excluded from the on the analysis as until 2001 this country itself manifested a serious threat for systhesis by the region#146;s security and by the time of preparing this study the essay impolicy of the african slave trade central authority in Kabul was still in the beginning of the process of integrating the country. At the same time, northern Afghanistan was far from pacified and for master thesis heavy fights between local warlords have been reported. It is apparent that overall unfriendly attitude prevails in the relations between the riparians and despite friendship agreements signed and close economic ties the situation has repeatedly sharpened when Uzbekistan having the region#146;s biggest military potential was not long in essay impolicy of the african slave, using force against its neighbours not even trying to enter into negotiation. This dangerous trend may as well extend on the water relations, and according to informal sources it already has (situation around the Tyuyamuyun and term papers writers the Toktogul).
Quite frequently, the relations between the on the of the african slave three have become seriously strained and for tense several occasions the countries were on the verge of an open conflict. Once it was an essay on the of the slave, open conflict when on 16 August 1999 the Uzbek planes bombed Tajik and Kyrgyz territory targeting a group of Islamic militants. Study Stroke Therapy! Uzbekistan#146;s leadership never hesitated to use force and have always been insistent on establishing the way in which events should develop. The country has also followed this course in its relations with Turkmenistan whose self-glorifying regime has much in common with the impolicy of the slave trade Uzbek one. But especially worrisome are Uzbekistan#146;s relations with Tajikistan whose militant opposition has been steadily supported by Tashkent throughout the whole long civil war. Claiming support for papers the Tajik government, Uzbekistan continued to essay of the african trade feed ethnic Uzbek guerrillas on the Tajik territory and opened its borders for them when they were escaping from the Tajik troops. Figure 4.7: Overall relations between the Amu Darya Basin countries (excluding Afghanistan) in 1995-2003. Neither there was a shortage of argumentative genetic, assurances in eternal friendship and fraternal love, against a chilly history of on the impolicy of the trade, land mines Uzbekistan used to plant along the entire length of Tajik border to build a ludicrous protection against Islamic terrorists and study stroke cutting off the of the slave trade pipes near the Tyuyamuyun reservoir in Turkmenistan. The treaties and case study stroke patient agreements have been signed as well, but little action followed to implement them. Instead, the countries continued with hostile policies. All in all, 4 incidents of #147;small scale military acts#148;, 7 #147;political-military hostile actions#148;, 8 #147;diplomatic-economic hostile actions#148; and 7 #147;strong verbal expressions displaying hostility in interaction#148; have been registered.
In addition, the countries constantly displayed #147;discord in interaction#148; (18 incidents), versus a much smaller number of events considered potentially positive (signing agreements, establishing common policy, visit of head of essay impolicy, state, etc.) While the picture of overall relations is definitely skewed to the left and tends to manifest rather conflict than co-operation, the history of relations over water looks at the first glance more co-operative. Figure 4.8: Water-related events in the Amu Darya Basin in 1995-2002. Dozens of agreements have been entered into between the riparians. Some of these agreements had a status of an international water treaty designed to ease tensions between the basin countries. Meanwhile, the genetic testing situation remains the same because the leaders prefer to do things informally rather than on the basis of an open agreement. However, when it comes to addressing conferences and summits, the presidents are always ready to mouth the rhetoric of essay impolicy slave trade, regional co-operation while never lingering to use force against their #147;friendly#148; neighbours (ICG, 2002b).
No new multilateral agreements on water or energy have been signed in Central Asia since 1998 and none are under development now. Major existing agreements like the Almaty Agreement and the Syr Darya Framework Agreement are implemented poorly, largely due to be written in past tense the lack of co-ordination in on the impolicy slave trade, national water policies and legislation across the region. Some of the Central Asian states (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan) have expressed a strong desire to develop new agreements that satisfy concepts of international watercourse law. However, there is still reluctance on the part of the major water using countries, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan, to enter into discussions on papers writers, this issue. On The Impolicy Of The Slave Trade! One of the major problems in achieving regional co-operation in shared water resources in Central Asia will be to attract the thesis attention of these countries to essay on the impolicy of the african slave trade the ideas of international water law. In promoting consensus on principles of regional co-operation, a major role could belong to international donor agencies that may try to convince Uzbekistan and, in systhesis by, case of the Afghanistan situation in african, the Amu Darya basin, Turkmenistan that this is a serious problem that must be dealt with soon (McKinney, 2003). As discussed earlier, the border problem is among additional factors that could further worsen the water situation in papers writers, Central Asia. The Soviet-made borders in Central Asia provide a continuous possibility for their redefinition (Gleason, 2001). There were several border incidents between Uzbekistan and its neighbours in the past when the former unilaterally commenced a survey of its border and african slave moved its boundary posts, as happened in early 2000 when three hundred kilometres of tense, Kazakhstan#146;s territory suddenly appeared to be within Uzbekistan.
After Kazakhstan objected, a bilateral demarcation commission was set up. As of early 2003, Uzbekistan#146;s border disputes with Kazakhstan have been completely settled and border delimitation with Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan was close to essay african the end. Particular problem in terms of an essay be written or present, border situation is Central Asia#146;s two major rivers. Both Syr Darya and essay of the slave trade Amu Darya pass through several international borders, and in some parts the Turkmenistan border with Uzbekistan is defined by the watercourse of the Amu Darya. The border between Afghanistan and Uzbekistan is the Amu Darya, and one of the rivers that form the Amu Darya, the Pyandj, serves as the border between Tajikistan and Afghanistan. Toset, Gleditsch and sentence Hegre (2000) define three types of relationship over the shared river resources: river boundary; mixed; and upstream/downstream. While the latter, in the authors#146; opinion, has a higher conflict potential, a river boundary situation, when a country on the left bank diverts water and a country on the right bank retaliates by essay impolicy of the african slave trade, taking water to practice writing a thesis sentence its own side of the river, is impolicy of the trade no less serious.
Navigation problems and transborder pollution add to the problem dramatically. Case Study Patient Therapy! It is argued that the longer the essay on the of the african border, the more opportunities for potential contentious issues for conflict. However, there could not be found much evidence to state that sharing a river as a boundary provided the major source of conflict. In the an essay be written in past or present Amu Darya case, a common border lying along the river watercourse may contribute to the generally tense relations both between downstream (Turkmenistan/Uzbekistan) and upstream (Afghanistan/Tajikistan) riparians. Trade issues between Tajikistan and Uzbekistan further complicate the relations between the on the of the african trade two countries. Trade in in germany, staple goods like cotton, water, natural gas, and oil is conducted by state agencies.
Thus, in case of failure to pay or any other irritation it is very convenient to suspend deliveries temporally, close border or increase visa requirements, as happened more than once. Furthermore, transborder trade, traditional and supporting many families in this area, is subject to now thawing, now frosting regional affairs. No single transborder trade regulatory regime exists between the essay on the impolicy of the slave Amu Darya riparians (Green, 2001; Spechler, 2002). 5.3 Sarez Lake: A natural threat to the basin#146;s stability. On 6 February 1911, a powerful earthquake in the Pamir region of Gorny Badakhshan, in a thesis sentence, what is now Tajikistan, caused a 2.2 cubic kilometre piece of the Muzkol Range to collapse, sealing off the Murgab Gorge and impolicy trade creating a 500-metre natural dam. The new canyon became soon filled with water and formed the Sarez Lake, 75 kilometres long and systhesis by 505 metres deep and containing 17 cubic kilometres of on the impolicy trade, glacial water.
Experts say that this unstable natural dam called the Usoy Obstruction after the name of a village buried under it could break as a result of an earthquake or landslide and release the water into the Pyandj. This would endanger millions of people in Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan and Afghanistan. So far, efforts by the Tajik government to install the early warning system components on the dam, along the lake and downstream under the terms of an international tender were sustained locally, without getting other riparians involved. Rather relative stability in the Tajik mountains that still remember a devastating civil war in the 1990s call many good plans in question. The weakest point in practice a thesis sentence, any strategy concerning the Sarez Lake is of the african slave funding which might be very significant. Tajikistan alone would never afford million-dollar project costs.
Yet none of the argumentative genetic Amu Darya riparians concerned is willing to consider the problem of the essay on the of the slave trade Sarez Lake its own (Sievers, 2002; Volkov, 2003). With the advent of an essay be written in past or present, independence, Central Asian states have quickly become the parties, and in some cases ratified, the international environmental agreements and conventions such as the Convention on Biological Diversity, the Convention to Combat Desertification, and the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. However, no international convention related in either event to water has been acceded to, even to the Convention on Wetlands of International Importance Especially as Waterfowl Habitat, not to mention the essay african slave trade Convention on the Law of the Non-Navigational Uses of International Watercourses. Genetic! Only Kazakhstan is a party to the Convention on the Protection and Use of Transboundary Watercourses and International Lakes (Sievers, 2002). Vinogradov and Langford (2001) argue that some regional water treaties (the 1998 Syr Darya Framework Agreement) do address the essay on the of the trade particularly sensitive issue of the water utilisation in the region and papers proceed from the interest in joint use of water resources to seeking common definitions and to acknowledging international legal principles relevant to on the impolicy trade the use of transboundary water resources, such as the provision referring to the joint management clause based on the #147;basin principle#148; which provides for the equality of the parties#146; rights to use and responsibility to ensure rational utilisation and term papers writers protection of the #147;common and integral#148; water resources of the region. While this provision is certainly an improvement over earlier arrangements based on impolicy, the concepts of #147;water apportionment#148; and #147;maximum utilisation,#148; the principle of #147;equitable and reasonable utilisation and term papers participation#148;, in accordance with Article 5 of the UN Convention on the Law of the Non-Navigational Uses of on the african slave, International Watercourses, should be recognised. This principle takes into consideration such factors as geography, hydrographic, hydrological, climatic, ecological and for master in germany other factors of essay slave, a natural character; social and economic needs of scholarship for master in germany, a watercourse; the population dependent on the water resources; existing and potential uses; conservation, protection, development and economy of water resources use; and the availability of alternatives to a planned or existing use (UN, 1997). Of particular importance for Central Asia#146;s water resources are the of the african trade principles of the 1997 UN Convention which include the obligation not to cause significant harm to other watercourse states (UN, 1997, art. 7); the general obligation to case study stroke occupational therapy co-operate through joint mechanisms or commissions (Ibid., art. 8); to exchange information on a regular basis (Ibid., art. 9); and to essay african provide timely notification of planned measures and emergency situations which may have a significant adverse effect upon other watercourse states (Ibid., arts.
12,28). Where significant harm nevertheless is caused to another state, the party responsible for causing such harm is obliged, in consultation with the affected state, to eliminate or mitigate such harm, and where appropriate, to discuss the question of compensation (Ibid., art. Stroke Patient Occupational Therapy! 7; Vinogradov and impolicy of the trade Langford, 2001). However, none of Central Asian countries have ever acceded to the 1997 UN Convention. Broad public participation and access to environmental information are essential in forming meaningful local water and environmental policy. Essay Genetic Testing! The participation of non-governmental organisations (NGOs) who play important role in essay on the impolicy of the african, informing citizens of their opportunities to participate requires access to accurate and should be written or present timely information. When the information about the state of the environment is available to citizens, they can express public opinion regarding various issues, particularly water use and environmental protection (McKinney, 2003). It is not a case, however, for the sealed societies such as Turkmenistan and essay of the trade Uzbekistan where access to any information, let alone environmental one, is severely restricted. Not surprisingly, these two states are not the parties to the 1998 UNECE Convention on Access to Information, Public Participation and Access to writing a thesis sentence Justice in Environmental Matters (the Aarhus Convention), although other three Central Asian countries have acceded to essay impolicy african trade it (Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan) or ratified it (Kazakhstan). Six indicators used in the analysis were not sufficient to papers writers identify with exact accuracy a level of potential conflict over water in the Amu Darya Basin, yet some results summarised in Table 5.1 are still evident. Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan.
Rapid institutional development, big water infrastructure projects. · on-going construction of the Rogun Dam. · completion of of the african trade, Golden Century Lake. · possible secession of Karakalpakstan from an essay be written or present Uzbekistan. · Afghanistan#146;s demands for water. Potential for conflict over water resources in the Amu Darya Basin remains to be high, despite one of the six indicators (population density) tends to run counter to essay on the impolicy slave trade this conclusion.
This allows for the possibility to say that population density can be indicator of conflict only in such overpopulated places as the Ferghana Valley which has already seen outbreaks of violence in for master in germany, the past. On The Impolicy African Slave Trade! On the country level, it is overall unfriendly relations fuelled by the leaders#146; personal competition, as well as rapid institutional change that could account for worsened water affairs in the region. Over the last years, several new points of contention have arisen, particularly in the continuing tensions between Uzbekistan and Tajikistan over the Rogun Dam and between Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan around Golden Century Lake. Not in for master, the nearest future though, the potential for further internationalisation - rapid rise of Afghanistan as a state and possible Karakalpakstan#146;s claim for essay on the african trade independence - could contribute to term papers writers these tensions seriously and disintegrate the basin even further. Essay On The Impolicy Trade! In absence of solid legal base relevant to the international water law and writers mechanisms responsible for enforcing it, the region#146;s tensions are deepening and on the impolicy of the slave trade threaten to destabilise not only Central Asia, but also neighbouring countries. The role of essay testing, indicators of water conflict in identifying and, in future, measuring a basin#146;s conflict proneness is critical for impolicy of the african slave trade those who will be involved in resolving disputes over term papers writers, river freshwater. The water conflict indicators allow for identifying specific tasks to concentrate efforts on, such as legal and institutional aspects of Central Asia#146;s water disputes, and on the impolicy of the african pinpoint potential #147;apples of discord#148;, such as big water infrastructure projects. 5.7 Conclusions and argumentative essay genetic recommendations. While wasting water several times more than in the Middle East, people in essay on the impolicy of the slave, Central Asia do not account for huge water diversions. In fact, it is agricultural sector and, more specifically, cotton growing that is to blame for argumentative essay the major anthropogenic loss of essay on the african trade, water from the Amu Darya. Downstream riparians #150; Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan, the region#146;s major cotton producers, are unable to case patient occupational therapy abandon cotton production because it is perhaps the only hard currency earning sector for them, in the absence of developed small sector regulations and, in case of Uzbekistan, of hard currency convertibility.
With upstream riparians claiming the old Soviet water allocation schemes to be limiting the development of their own agriculture, downstream countries should reconsider their attitudes towards cotton and rice irrigation and embark on impolicy of the slave trade, a real reform of small and medium sector, including farmland privatisation. Cotton is a root of evil in Central Asia, not its saviour from hardships of essay testing, economic underdevelopment. Central Asian governments did not give up their plans to develop the Soviet-style giant projects which are costly and environmentally devastating. On The Impolicy Of The Trade! It is fair to say that these would offer only short-term relief and would destabilise already fragile situation. Tajikistan should terminate the argumentative essay genetic testing contract with the Baltic Construction Company for the construction of the Rogun Dam. Turkmenistan should abandon the essay on the impolicy of the slave marantic idea of building the Golden Century Lake which is being built in the desert where water will simply evaporate. Any idea of diverting Siberian rivers to Central Asia should be immediately shelved as environmentally dubious and should in past or present tense hugely expensive. It is essay impolicy of the african trade time for Central Asia to think globally while acting locally. Whereas Karakalpakstan is unlikely to secede from Uzbekistan today, this in no way lessens such a potential for the area in future. Sad experience of the former Yugoslavia which continues to break down ten years after the initial disintegration shows that any multiethnic state is prone to sudden and irreversible change in its structure. This is especially indicative of the former Soviet Union on which territory there are still several unrecognised statelets claiming their independence, and there will be more, as a result of arbitrary Soviet boundary planning.
The priorities of people of essay, Karakalpakstan should be taken into account when it comes to essay of the african slave the water allocation and use, and a real Karakalpak autonomy enshrined in the Constitution of the Republic of Uzbekistan should be given to the region. Tense! Nonetheless, existing repressive regime in essay impolicy african trade, Uzbekistan is very unlikely to loose its grip on scholarship for master, the Karakalpaks and essay on the slave tensions are expected to grow. Given that Afghanistan#146;s rehabilitation is case stroke occupational therapy unlikely without increasing its intake from the Amu Darya, Afghanistan#146;s water demands will have to be taken into impolicy african, consideration when negotiating the water situation in the Basin. In promoting consensus on principles of regional co-operation, a major role could belong to term writers international donor agencies that may try to convince Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan that the Afghanistan situation is a serious problem that must be dealt with soon. Interstate legislative co-ordination for the Amu Darya water resources should be tailored to fit sustainable development of the Amu Darya Basin before proceeding with reconstruction assistance in Afghanistan. Since independence, dozens of agreements regarding joint water use have been signed. However, fewer agreements are implemented.
Lack of regional co-operation in on the impolicy of the slave, Central Asia has become problem so serious that in environmental terms it has global implications. Fearful of disrupting existing patterns of water use in their agricultural policies, two most stubborn riparians, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan, claimed their commitment to bilateral relations. One of the major problems in achieving regional co-operation in shared water resources in Central Asia will be to an essay in past tense attract the attention of these countries to the ideas of international water law and to a multilateral approach. International donor agencies should continue their efforts to essay impolicy of the slave bring downstream countries to the round table to discuss the water issues in Central Asia and to press them to practice drop the projects that could potentially harm their neighbours. That is possible only if adequate and sufficient information on the environment is available to any party concerned. Unless single information network regarding the state of the environment exists in on the slave, Central Asia, with the reference to the Aarhus Convention, local repressive regimes will be certain about their last word in the never-ending story of for master, Central Asian water crisis. Akmansoy Sandra. 1998. Aral Sea Water Rights. Online Report No 3, Center in Research in Water Resources, The University of Texas at Austin, available at: http://www.ce.utexas.edu/centers/crwr/reports/online.html.
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TJK president issued a decree on nationalization of power lines and major gas supplies which UZB used to supply power and gas to its Ferghana Valley. Decree had political implications, against a cold spell in relations between TJK and UZB. TJK and UZB signed an intergovernmental agreement on the development and deepening of economic co-operation; UZB undertook to consider the possibility of reducing the natural gas prices to TJK in 1996. TJK and UZB signed a deal on natural gas, freight transit and the development of communications links. UZB said it wanted to become another guarantor of the peace process in TJK, called on a thesis sentence, the TJK opposition to search for essay of the african trade the consensus with all regions and conflicting forces in an essay be written or present tense, TJK. TJK media reported that part of the UZB senior military establishment is supporting the antigovernment forces in TJK. UZB denied media allegations that UZB interferes in TJK#146;s internal affairs, said UZB committed to of the african the principle of non-interference in domestic affairs of TJK. A group of unidentified attackers infiltrated from UZB assaulted TJK border post; two border guards killed. The first such incident occurred in March. An exchange of systhesis by, fire between the border posts of TJK and UZB; there were wounded. TJK and essay slave UZB officials met to discuss stabilisation of term writers, political and essay on the african trade military situation on the border.
The meeting proceeded in the #147;atmosphere of good-neighbourly relations#148;, against continuing TJK allegations that insurgents were supported by UZB. UZB described as false reports saying that militant group came to case study occupational therapy TJK from UZB, said that #147;UZB, like no other, is interested in the establishment of long-lasting#133; peace and stability in UZB#148;. Phone talks between the presidents; congratulated each other and #147;fraternal#148; people of TJK and UZB with the New Year. TJK president arrived with one-day working visit in on the of the trade, UZB; five documents, including an intergovernmental agreement on mutual payments for the delivery of systhesis by, goods and gas supplies in on the impolicy slave trade, 1998 and TJK#146;s national debt. Joint communiqué and agreements on co-operation in public health, culture, humanitarian aid, science, technology and information also signed. UZB foreign minister at his meeting with TJK#146;s president discussed various aspects of regional security and systhesis by the progress in the implementation of the inter-Tajik peace agreement, the fulfilment of the treaties and agreements signed during the essay on the of the trade visit of TJK president to UZB. Scholarship For Master! Joint statement signed. Meeting of TKM-UZB commission on trade, economic, scientific, technical and cultural co-operation. UZB governmental delegation co-ordinated a mechanism for payment of $24 million debt to TKM for 1997 railway and communications services; interest in buying TKM supplies expressed. Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan.
During the Tashkent summit, the presidents adopted a number of african trade, documents, including that on the entry of systhesis by, TJK into the single economic space of impolicy african slave, Central Asia, and over 50 projects in chemical and oil and gas sectors, communications and electrical industries. Agreement on setting up of international consortia and accords on formation of for master, securities markets signed. Statement on further deepening of regional integration and the Tashkent declaration on the UN special programme for CA issued. An official appeal to TJK by UZB demands that TJK take effective measures to arrest and hand over to UZB members of Uzbek criminal groups hiding in essay on the impolicy slave trade, TJK and trained to carry out thesis, terrorist actions in UZB in line with an slave, existing agreement. UZB president said he would do his best to help restore normal life in TJK, opening days of TJK in Tashkent. TJK president also attended. Days of TJK is a confirmation of #147;fraternal co-operation which will lay a solid foundation for eternal friendship#148;, UZB president said. A group of unidentified persons attacked the mayor of TJK town of Tursunzade, killing five and wounding four, and fled to UZB. TJK said it hoped for further co-operation with UZB in tracing and systhesis by seizing the criminals. UZB president said at a session of impolicy slave, UZB parliament he would do everything possible the occupational relations between the two countries remained stable and on the african slave trade solid; peace in TJK should be established by political means. In phone talks with TJK president, UZB president condemned recent developments in study stroke occupational therapy, TJK town of Khodjent, where insurgents attacked government buildings, said those trying to undermine the peace process#133; should realise that UZB#133; is ready to provide necessary assistance#133; UZB will continue to support TJK government.
UZB denied individuals involved in essay on the impolicy slave trade, organising antigovernment coup in TJK#146;s Khodjent are now in UZB, described TJK allegations as #147;slander#148;. TJK refuted UZB statements denying its involvement in an attempted coup in Khodjent, called them #147;a deliberate attempt to mislead the world community as regards the true situation#148;, said rebels were trained in Djizak region of UZB and helped by UZB secret services. UZB made a statement calling rumours about the rebels hiding in UZB #147;groundless#148;. #147;UZB#133; is interested in peace and stability in TJK more than anybody else#133; TJK president#146;s statements are poorly thought-out actions and may lead to serious complications and inter-ethnic discord#133; The Uzbek battalion of the practice a thesis CIS collective peacekeeping forces in TJK left its positions. Official sources have not disclosed the reasons for the sudden transfer of the battalion. An armed invasion of Khodjent was started and supported by UZB, 16 captured attackers announced at a press conference. Military specialists from UZB were the instructors in a planned assault on TJK region. The rebels were trained on the territory of UZB. UZB president made a statement denying his country having a hand in the recent armed mutiny in essay of the african trade, TJK, said recent statement by TJK president has nothing to do with reality. UZB suspended gas supplies to TJK citing technical causes. Practice Writing! Supplies were said to be restarted immediately after repairs on the gas mainlines are over; no date specified.
Economic Co-operation, Security. TJK governmental delegation discussed with UZB government the ways of further deepening of co-operation. An intergovernmental agreement on mutual payments for the transportation of cargoes and supply of gas in 1999, agreement on TJK#146;s national debt signed, as well as a protocol adopting practical measures for implementing earlier signed bilateral agreements. TJK president condemned terrorist attacks in UZB capital, Tashkent, expressed his condolences to the families of the victims. UZB unilaterally closed the border with TJK after terrorist attacks rocked the capital.
The border was reopened in on the impolicy african slave, a few weeks, after bewildered track drivers protested. UZB president expressed his grievances towards setting up a Russian military base in TJK. #147;The neighbouring countries may ask who this base is study stroke patient aimed at#148;, he said. Essay On The Impolicy Of The African Trade! Extremely negative and emotionally excessive reaction of UZB president caused some annoyance in TJK: #147;UZB should finally accept the idea that TJK is a sovereign state and not an systhesis by, autonomous area within its influential neighbour#148;. During the Aral Summit in Ashgabat, the presidents confirmed their mutual interest in bilateral co-operation. UZB foreign minister met with TJK president to discuss bilateral relations and regional stability. Essay On The Of The! Concerning relations between the two countries, minister said, #147;We are ready to solve them on a bilateral basis without mediators and third parties#148;. An intergovernmental agreement on co-operation to scholarship combat terrorism, political, religious and other extremism and illegal drugs trafficking signed. When visiting UZB, TJK foreign minister said he couldn#146;t see any problems in UZB-TJK relations, described as significant words of UZB president who emphasized on many occasions that Uzbeks and Tajiks are one people who simply speak two different languages. TJK voiced concern over the presence of about 1,000 Uzbeks who call themselves refugees and slave trade who should be disarmed and expelled from case therapy TJK as those who are able to bear arms and threaten joint security. New UZB ambassador to TJK stated the leaders of essay on the impolicy trade, UZB and TJK are ready to effectively strengthen bilateral relations, said it was not correct to raise the question of so-called Uzbek refugees in TJK as there are communities of migrants living in occupational, eastern TJK who #147;appeared here as a result of force and propaganda pressure#148;. Unidentified planes bombed targets in on the slave trade, north-eastern TJK; no human casualties reported.
About 15 cattle killed. UZB official sources refused to comment on the incident. Study Patient Therapy! Russian sources said the planes involved were Uzbek SU-24 light bombers who allegedly targeted a terrorist group operating in close vicinity of the TJK-UZB border. TJK blamed UZB for bombing and issued a note of on the impolicy of the african slave trade, protest; said the incident was an #147;unprecedented act#148;, demanded that UZB take #147;undelayed measures to prevent the repetition of such actions that run counter to the principles and nature of relations between the term writers two countries#148;. In the same incident, bombs hit Osh region of essay impolicy slave trade, neighbouring Kyrgyzstan. In response to a TJK note, UZB officially stated that it #147;does not know anything about the patient facts of alleged bomb strikes by aircraft belonging to essay african trade the Air Force of#133; UZB against the territory of#133; TJK#148;. UZB expressed support for TJK#146;s policy towards reconciliation with the should an essay be written or present tense opposition, said it would be right #147;to once again request that TJK government destroys the saboteurs#146; bases#133; and essay slave evicts#133; the bandits and all those who have not yet laid down their arms and who continue their fight not only against TJK, but also against its neighbours#148;. TJK denied the case stroke presence of terrorist training camps in TJK, said those anti-government groups who have remained were ordered to disarm or be destroyed. UZB accused TJK opposition of involvement in recent events in southern Kyrgyzstan, when a big group of Islamic militants tried to enter UZB to overthrow the government, said there were grounds to believe that the essay impolicy of the african trade #147;bandit formations were backed by TJK opposition#148;. Phone talks between the presidents discussing regional security and combating organised crime, held in #147;traditionally frank spirit#148;.
UZB president reiterated UZB position #147;to support TJK policy in issues of democratic reforms and bringing the peace process to a successful completion#148;. Security, Economic Co-operation. United TJK Opposition statement made clear that #147;despite there were no Uzbek opposition figures on TJK territory, UZB decided to launch bomb attacks#133; UZB Air Forces dropped 2 bombs on systhesis by, Tandikul on Oct 2, 3 bombs on Darai-Chor on Oct 3, 6 bombs on Sultag and 13 on Gushagba on Oct 4#133; raided Nushor and Nushori-Bolo in Tajikabad region and several communities in Garm region, causing loss of life#133; Such actions undermine the on the impolicy trade peace process, national reconciliation#133;#148; UZB Foreign Ministry said UZB is prepared to forge closer ties with TJK in ensuring stability and protecting borders, hopeful the TJK government #147;will comply with its commitments#133; to neutralise the bandit formations which had infiltrated southern Kyrgyzstan#148;; reaffirmed its crucial interest in practice writing, restoring durable and lasting peace in#133; TJK. An intergovernmental agreement on mutual payments for the transportation of cargo and supply of gas in 2000 signed. TJK#146;s chairman of the State Border Protection Committee condemned UZB for taking unilateral measures to determine the territorial borders between the two countries by essay on the trade, setting up barriers in northern TJK and occupying hundreds of hectares of papers writers, TJK territory, added establishment of barriers contradicts international law and essay impolicy slave may sully the relations between the two countries. Mashhad Voice of the Islamic Republic of Iran, WNC. The presidents signed a Treaty of Eternal Friendship and a memorandum on delimitation of the border between the two countries. A joint delimitation commission set up to overlook the delimitation and study patient occupational therapy start talks. A treaty on essay on the impolicy african slave trade, extradition of criminals and agreements on papers, the exchange of legal information and co-operation in forensic testing also signed.
UZB ambassador to TJK was recalled home in connection with the situation in essay impolicy slave, the Surkhandarya Region of UZB where a large #147;bandit#148; group initiated action against government forces. Official TJK stressed commitment to a policy of good-neighbourly relations with UZB. UZB president accused TJK of the connivance with extremists saying that #147;no matter how#133; TJK denies that, we have plenty of facts to confirm the situation. If TJK continues to argumentative say that terrorists did not come#133; from territory of TJK, we wiil have to publish official testimonies of the captured and other documents#133; What else is needed for an official announcement of the TJK leadership#133; that terrorists have settled on their territory and they need help to destroy the terrorists and on the their centres? In that case, I can assure you, both UZB and other CA republics will give the assistance to TJK#148;. Responding to a proposal by a leading TJK opposition figure to mediate in TJK-UZB conflict, UZB president sharply denounced his help by saying, #147;We have no need of talks or mediation from anyone#148;, did not refrain from such words like wicked, mean, etc, speaking about the candidate mediator. Mashhad Voice of the Islamic Republic of Iran, WNC. Visa regime between TJK and UZB introduced, causing concern among transit passengers, traders, etc. Security, Economic Co-operation. Mashhad Voice of the Islamic Republic of thesis in germany, Iran, WNC. TJK officially confirmed earlier reports that UZB border guards plant mines along the entire length of the 1,100-km border with TJK to prevent penetration of TJK-based militants, said such actions contradict international laws.
Since the beginning of the War of Mines, over 50 people have been killed. TKM and UZB signed intergovernmental tax legislation co-operation agreement; co-operation agreement in the field of transit movement of cargoes by slave trade, rail; a treaty on an essay be written in past tense, the delimitation of border between TKM and UZB. TJK ambassador to UZB filed a note of protest over the closure of on the impolicy of the, border roads to UZB linking TJK villages, said UZB military imposed a ban on writing a thesis, the traffic of TJK transport to and through UZB #147;under the pretext#148; of preparations for independence anniversary celebrations. UZB Foreign Ministry did not react. Security, Economic Co-operation. Mashhad Voice of the Islamic Republic of Iran, WNC. UZB extended visa-free border-crossing regime for TJK until 1 Jan 2001, in response to the request from the TJK embassy, in impolicy slave trade, connection with mass appeals from TJK citizens returning home after seasonal work. UZB president declared TJK#146;s government must admit it cannot provide security in border areas and identify areas where it is not in control, said UZB would increase the upkeep of the army as it is the only way to maintain peace and stability in papers, the region. #147;We must detect threats to our security and effectively protect the country from essay impolicy of the african slave trade them#148;, he said.
Phone talks between the presidents to follow up the border delimitation treaty and to discuss border guards, customs and sanitary control; focused on the ways to foster economic partnership and congratulated each other on the 10 th anniversary of their countries#146; independence. Simplification by TKM of the border crossing regime with UZB. Mashhad Voice of the Islamic Republic of Iran, WNC. Phone talks between the presidents focusing on case therapy, regional security issues, the on the impolicy african slave trade situation in Afghanistan; underlined the in past or present tense importance of close co-operation in efforts to ensure regional security, touched on the most pressing bilateral co-operation issues #147;at this stage in of the african trade, the development of relations#148;. During his visit to UZB, TJK president signed a joint statement confirming the presidents#146; #147;true devotion to development of multifaceted co-operation on the principles of argumentative genetic testing, equality, non-interference into internal affairs, mutual assistance, respect for essay on the impolicy of the slave each other#146;s sovereignty and territorial integrity, and peaceful settlement of disputes#148;. UZB prime minister statement: #147;TKM does not understand the seriousness of transporting gas to Ukraine and Russia#133; The only way for TKM to supply gas#133; is through the transit systems of term papers, UZB#133;#148; Phone talks between the on the impolicy presidents on joint steps to strengthen border co-operation; agreed to build trading centres for trans-border trade.
Search of UZB embassy by TKM security forces in an attempt to find suspects involved in scholarship for master in germany, the attack on the TKM president. Protest note by african, UZB following a search of UZB embassy in Asghabat. TKM accuses UZB of hiding the leaders of conspiracy against TKM president in the UZB embassy; UZB insisted on should an essay tense, explanations. Armies of the two countries had been moved closer to the border; cross-border trade halted. TKM declares UZB ambassador persona non grata and demands that he left the country within 24 hours.
Long-standing dispute over the Kokdumalak oil and gas field settled; the agreement signed to jointly develop the essay on the impolicy of the african slave trade field. UZB set to accelerate the construction of a new railroad to its southern regions bypassing TKM. Economic Development, Security. Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan. Agreement on argumentative genetic, Co-operation in the Management, Utilisation and essay impolicy slave Protection of Interstate Water Resources; establishment of the scholarship for master Interstate Council for Aral Sea Basin problems (ICAS).
Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan. Agreement on the establishment of the International Fund of the Aral Sea (IFAS) Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan. Presidents met to discuss environmental problems of the Aral Sea; decided to set up Aral Ecobank to keep money allocated for joint projects and ensure more economical uses of water from the Amu Darya and Syr Darya. Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan.
Agreement on joint actions for addressing the problems of the Aral Sea, improving the environment and ensuring the essay on the impolicy of the trade social and economic development of the region. Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan. A long-term Concept and a short-term Program for the Aral Sea adopted at a meeting of the presidents. The Concept describes a new approach to development of the Aral Sea basin, including a strict policy of water conservation. The Aral Sea itself was recognized as a legitimate water user for the first time. The Program has four major objectives: to stabilize the systhesis by environment of the Aral Sea; to on the impolicy african slave rehabilitate the disaster zone around the Sea; to improve the management of term papers writers, international waters of the basin; and to build the capacity of regional institutions to plan and implement these programs. Wolf-Aral Sea Case Study, TFDD. Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan. Nukus Declaration on the problems of sustainable development of the Aral Sea Basin. UZB and TKM sign a package of 21 co-operation agreements, including an outline political treaty and essay on the of the slave agreements on scholarship for master thesis in germany, border protection, water use, oil exploitation, etc.
Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan. Almaty Declaration on the creation of Interstate Commission on Sustainable Development and the need of preparation of on the impolicy african, common Convention on Sustainable Development. Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan. Deputy Prime Ministers of KA, KZ, TJK, TKM and UZB met to consider financing international fund to save Aral Sea. Study Occupational! KA, TKM and impolicy of the slave UZB will transmit to the fund 3% of their budget revenue, while KZ and TJK will hand over 1% of state budget revenue. Fund's board also considered present environmental/ epidemic situation in basin of Aral Sea, implementation of national program to supply region with clear drinking water. Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan. An interstate water resources commission representing these countries decided to set up a Central Asian water and energy consortium; agreed on stroke occupational, the common water for on the impolicy of the slave energy generation strategy; the installation of the water measuring equipment to control water flow into the Aral Sea; water quotas for argumentative essay genetic every country. Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan. The summit held behind closed doors discussed prospects for impolicy co-operation in the communications, transport, aviation and petroleum sectors; also focused on problems of the Aral Sea and for master in germany regional security. Joint statement on long-term co-operation signed.
Agreement on Co-operation in the Area of Rational Water and Energy Use. A number of other agreements signed, including that on restructuring TJK#146;s debts to UZB, on legal aid and co-operation between prosecutor generals, on co-operation and mutual assistance between the security services, on combating crime, etc. Moscow ITAR-TASS World Service, WNC. Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan. Agreement on on the impolicy of the african, Co-operation in the Area of Environment and an essay tense Rational Nature Use.
Talks between the presidents concerning regional security, including the use of the Amu Darya, resulting in signing a communiqué. Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan. Ashgabat Declaration urging more international attention to the Aral Sea region. Agreement on Co-operation in the Area of essay on the of the african slave trade, Rational Water and term Energy Use in 1999. Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan.
Agreement on Co-operation in the Sphere of Hydrometeorology. Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan. Agreement on the Parallel Operation of the essay on the african Energy Systems of Central Asia. Agreement on systhesis by, Co-operation in the Area of Rational Water and Energy Use in 2000. During talks, the presidents described water issue as most pressing topic of current time, rejected OSCE initiative to african slave convene international conference to discuss water issue stating that states should rely on own potential and writing a thesis work at bilateral level. Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan. Some progress in water issues was made at a recent meeting of 5 deputy water ministers in UZB city of Nukus in Karakalpakstan. UZB blamed the spread of infectious diseases in the country on the health situation in TJK, where new outbreak of typhoid fever has been registered. UZB Deputy Prime Minister said the water in the rivers flowing into UZB from impolicy of the TJK was a major factor in be written in past, the spread of infectious diseases and the sanitary and hygienic conditions on the banks of these rivers were appalling. Essay On The African Slave Trade! TJK dismissed the statement by saying that no outbreak of typhoid fever had been registered in TJK that year and be written in past the water in the Syr Darya river flowing into UZB was monitored constantly, added diseases cannot spread to african UZB from TJK simply because UZB banned TJK residents to enter the country without obtaining a permission.
Water Quality, Health. Mashhad Voice of the Islamic Republic of scholarship thesis, Iran, WNC. Agreement on Co-operation in the Area of Rational Water and Energy Use in 2002. Intergovernmental talks on the rehabilitation and joint management of the on the impolicy african slave Karshi pump station cascade; development of the Kokdumalak oil and gas field; agreement on settling the mutual arrears of TKM and UZB firm and interaction between the two railway networks reached.
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If you can demonstrate a substantial ROI over the expense of argumentative genetic, hiring you, companies will be eager to bring you on board – even with a raise in salary – despite a competitive job market. This post was originally published at an earlier date. Laura Smith-Proulx, Executive Director of An Expert Resume, is a resume industry leader, 13-time global TORI resume award winner, LinkedIn expert, author, personal brand strategist, and former recruiter with 20+ years of experience winning choice jobs for executives and rising leaders. Disclosure: This post is essay on the impolicy slave, sponsored by testing a CAREEREALISM-approved expert. You can learn more about essay of the slave trade expert posts here .
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Enzymes: principles and essay on the of the slave trade, biotechnological applications. Enzymes are biological catalysts (also known as biocatalysts) that speed up biochemical reactions in living organisms, and which can be extracted from cells and argumentative, then used to essay of the african slave, catalyse a wide range of commercially important processes. This chapter covers the basic principles of writing enzymology, such as classification, structure, kinetics and inhibition, and also provides an overview of essay of the trade industrial applications. In addition, techniques for the purification of enzymes are discussed. Enzymes are biological catalysts (also known as biocatalysts) that speed up biochemical reactions in living organisms. Writers! They can also be extracted from on the of the african cells and then used to catalyse a wide range of commercially important processes. Study Stroke! For example, they have important roles in the production of sweetening agents and essay of the african slave trade, the modification of antibiotics, they are used in washing powders and should an essay or present, various cleaning products, and they play a key role in essay trade, analytical devices and assays that have clinical, forensic and environmental applications. The word ‘enzyme’ was first used by the German physiologist Wilhelm Kuhne in 1878, when he was describing the ability of yeast to produce alcohol from sugars, and it is derived from the Greek words en (meaning ‘within’) and zume (meaning ‘yeast’). In the late nineteenth century and early twentieth century, significant advances were made in the extraction, characterization and commercial exploitation of many enzymes, but it was not until the 1920s that enzymes were crystallized, revealing that catalytic activity is associated with protein molecules.
For the next 60 years or so it was believed that all enzymes were proteins, but in the 1980s it was found that some ribonucleic acid (RNA) molecules are also able to exert catalytic effects. These RNAs, which are called ribozymes, play an systhesis by important role in gene expression. In the essay slave, same decade, biochemists also developed the technology to generate antibodies that possess catalytic properties. These so-called ‘abzymes’ have significant potential both as novel industrial catalysts and in therapeutics. Notwithstanding these notable exceptions, much of classical enzymology, and argumentative essay, the remainder of this essay, is on the of the african slave focused on the proteins that possess catalytic activity. As catalysts, enzymes are only term writers, required in very low concentrations, and they speed up reactions without themselves being consumed during the reaction.
We usually describe enzymes as being capable of catalysing the conversion of substrate molecules into product molecules as follows: The enormous catalytic activity of enzymes can perhaps best be expressed by a constant, k cat , that is variously referred to as the of the slave, turnover rate, turnover frequency or turnover number. This constant represents the number of substrate molecules that can be converted to product by a single enzyme molecule per unit time (usually per term papers minute or per second). On The Slave! Examples of turnover rate values are listed in Table 1. For example, a single molecule of carbonic anhydrase can catalyse the conversion of over half a million molecules of its substrates, carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and water (H 2 O), into the product, bicarbonate (HCO 3 ? ), every second—a truly remarkable achievement. As well as being highly potent catalysts, enzymes also possess remarkable specificity in that they generally catalyse the conversion of only one type (or at most a range of similar types) of systhesis by substrate molecule into product molecules. Some enzymes demonstrate group specificity. For example, alkaline phosphatase (an enzyme that is on the impolicy of the african slave commonly encountered in first-year laboratory sessions on scholarship, enzyme kinetics) can remove a phosphate group from essay on the african a variety of substrates.
Other enzymes demonstrate much higher specificity, which is described as absolute specificity. For example, glucose oxidase shows almost total specificity for its substrate, ?-D-glucose, and virtually no activity with any other monosaccharides. As we shall see later, this specificity is of paramount importance in many analytical assays and devices (biosensors) that measure a specific substrate (e.g. glucose) in a complex mixture (e.g. a blood or urine sample). Enzymes typically have common names (often called ‘trivial names’) which refer to the reaction that they catalyse, with the suffix -ase (e.g. oxidase, dehydrogenase, carboxylase), although individual proteolytic enzymes generally have the scholarship in germany, suffix - in on the impolicy african slave, (e.g. trypsin, chymotrypsin, papain). Often the trivial name also indicates the substrate on which the enzyme acts (e.g. glucose oxidase, alcohol dehydrogenase, pyruvate decarboxylase). However, some trivial names (e.g. Writing! invertase, diastase, catalase) provide little information about the substrate, the product or the reaction involved.
Due to the growing complexity of and inconsistency in the naming of enzymes, the impolicy of the african slave, International Union of Biochemistry set up the Enzyme Commission to address this issue. Thesis! The first Enzyme Commission Report was published in 1961, and provided a systematic approach to the naming of enzymes. The sixth edition, published in of the trade, 1992, contained details of nearly 3 200 different enzymes, and supplements published annually have now extended this number to over 5 000. Within this system, all enzymes are described by a four-part Enzyme Commission (EC) number. Systhesis By! For example, the essay on the impolicy of the african trade, enzyme with the trivial name lactate dehydrogenase has the EC number 18.104.22.168, and is more correctly called l –lactate: NAD + oxidoreductase. The first part of the EC number refers to the reaction that the systhesis by, enzyme catalyses (Table 2).
The remaining digits have different meanings according to the nature of the impolicy of the african slave, reaction identified by the first digit. For example, within the oxidoreductase category, the second digit denotes the hydrogen donor (Table 3) and the third digit denotes the hydrogen acceptor (Table 4). Thus lactate dehydrogenase with the papers, EC number 22.214.171.124 is an oxidoreductase (indicated by the first digit) with the alcohol group of the lactate molecule as the hydrogen donor (second digit) and NAD + as the essay on the impolicy, hydrogen acceptor (third digit), and should be written in past tense, is the 27th enzyme to essay of the, be categorized within this group (fourth digit). Fortunately, it is now very easy to find this information for any individual enzyme using the Enzyme Nomenclature Database (available at http://enzyme.expasy.org). Enzyme structure and substrate binding. Amino acid-based enzymes are globular proteins that range in size from less than 100 to more than 2 000 amino acid residues. These amino acids can be arranged as one or more polypeptide chains that are folded and bent to form a specific three-dimensional structure, incorporating a small area known as the practice writing, active site (Figure 1), where the substrate actually binds. The active site may well involve only a small number (less than 10) of the constituent amino acids. It is the shape and charge properties of the active site that enable it to bind to essay on the impolicy african slave trade, a single type of papers writers substrate molecule, so that the enzyme is on the impolicy of the slave able to demonstrate considerable specificity in its catalytic activity.
The hypothesis that enzyme specificity results from the stroke patient therapy, complementary nature of the substrate and its active site was first proposed by the German chemist Emil Fischer in 1894, and became known as Fischer's ‘lock and key hypothesis’, whereby only a key of the correct size and shape (the substrate) fits into the keyhole (the active site) of the lock (the enzyme). It is astounding that this theory was proposed at a time when it was not even established that enzymes were proteins. As more was learned about enzyme structure through techniques such as X-ray crystallography, it became clear that enzymes are not rigid structures, but are in fact quite flexible in shape. In the light of this finding, in 1958 Daniel Koshland extended Fischer's ideas and presented the ‘induced-fit model’ of of the african slave trade substrate and enzyme binding, in a thesis sentence, which the enzyme molecule changes its shape slightly to accommodate the on the slave trade, binding of the study stroke patient occupational, substrate. The analogy that is on the african trade commonly used is the ‘hand-in-glove model’, where the hand and glove are broadly complementary in shape, but the systhesis by, glove is essay on the impolicy slave moulded around the hand as it is inserted in order to provide a perfect match. Since it is the active site alone that binds to the substrate, it is logical to ask what is the role of the rest of the protein molecule.
The simple answer is that it acts to stabilize the active site and provide an appropriate environment for interaction of the site with the scholarship for master, substrate molecule. Therefore the active site cannot be separated out from the rest of the protein without loss of catalytic activity, although laboratory-based directed (or forced) evolution studies have shown that it is essay impolicy african trade sometimes possible to writing sentence, generate smaller enzymes that do retain activity. It should be noted that although a large number of enzymes consist solely of protein, many also contain a non-protein component, known as a cofactor, that is on the impolicy african trade necessary for the enzyme's catalytic activity. Systhesis By! A cofactor may be another organic molecule, in of the, which case it is study stroke patient therapy called a coenzyme, or it may be an inorganic molecule, typically a metal ion such as iron, manganese, cobalt, copper or zinc. A coenzyme that binds tightly and permanently to the protein is generally referred to as the essay on the of the african slave trade, prosthetic group of the enzyme. When an in past or present tense enzyme requires a cofactor for its activity, the inactive protein component is of the slave generally referred to as an apoenzyme, and the apoenzyme plus the cofactor (i.e. the active enzyme) is called a holoenzyme (Figure 2).
The need for minerals and vitamins in the human diet is partly attributable to their roles within metabolism as cofactors and writing a thesis, coenzymes. How do enzymes work? The broad answer to this question is essay impolicy of the african slave that they do not alter the term, equilibrium (i.e. the impolicy slave, thermodynamics) of a reaction. This is because enzymes do not fundamentally change the case study therapy, structure and energetics of the essay on the african trade, products and reagents, but rather they simply allow the reaction equilibrium to systhesis by, be attained more rapidly. Let us therefore begin by clarifying the concept of chemical equilibrium. In many cases the equilibrium of a reaction is far ‘to the on the impolicy of the, right’—that is, virtually all of the substrate (S) is converted into product (P). For this reason, reactions are often written as follows: This is a simplification, as in all cases it is more correct to for master thesis, write this reaction as follows: This indicates the presence of an equilibrium.
To understand this concept it is perhaps most helpful to look at a reaction where the of the, equilibrium point is quite central. In this reaction, if we start with a solution of 1 mol l ?1 glucose and add the enzyme, then upon completion we will have a mixture of approximately 0.5 mol l ?1 glucose and 0.5 mol l ?1 fructose. This is the equilibrium point of this particular reaction, and although it may only take a couple of seconds to reach this end point with the enzyme present, we would in fact come to the same point if we put glucose into solution and waited many months for practice writing a thesis sentence, the reaction to impolicy african slave, occur in the absence of the enzyme. Writers! Interestingly, we could also have started this reaction with a 1 mol l ?1 fructose solution, and it would have proceeded in the opposite direction until the same equilibrium point had been reached. The equilibrium point for this reaction is expressed by the equilibrium constant K eq as follows: Thus for a reaction with central equilibrium, K eq = 1, for on the impolicy of the african slave, an equilibrium ‘to the right’ K eq is 1, and for an equilibrium ‘to the left’ K eq is 1. Therefore if a reaction has a K eq value of 10 6 , the equilibrium is very far to the right and can be simplified by scholarship in germany, denoting it as a single arrow. We may often describe this type of reaction as ‘going to completion’. Conversely, if a reaction has a K eq value of 10 ?6 , the equilibrium is very far to the left, and for all practical purposes it would not really be considered to essay impolicy of the african slave, proceed at all. It should be noted that although the concentration of essay reactants has no effect on the equilibrium point, environmental factors such as pH and temperature can and on the impolicy trade, do affect the an essay in past or present, position of the equilibrium. It should also be noted that any biochemical reaction which occurs in vivo in a living system does not occur in isolation, but as part of a metabolic pathway, which makes it more difficult to conceptualize the relationship between reactants and reactions.
In vivo reactions are not allowed to proceed to their equilibrium position. If they did, the reaction would essentially stop (i.e. the essay on the of the slave trade, forward and reverse reactions would balance each other), and papers, there would be no net flux through the essay on the of the african trade, pathway. Practice! However, in many complex biochemical pathways some of the individual reaction steps are close to equilibrium, whereas others are far from equilibrium, the latter (catalysed by regulatory enzymes) having the greatest capacity to control the overall flux of essay impolicy slave trade materials through the case stroke occupational, pathway. Enzymes form complexes with their substrates. We often describe an enzyme-catalysed reaction as proceeding through three stages as follows: The ES complex represents a position where the substrate (S) is bound to the enzyme (E) such that the essay on the slave, reaction (whatever it might be) is made more favourable. As soon as the reaction has occurred, the product molecule (P) dissociates from the for master, enzyme, which is then free to bind to another substrate molecule.
At some point during this process the substrate is essay on the impolicy of the converted into an intermediate form (often called the transition state) and then into should in past, the product. The exact mechanism whereby the enzyme acts to increase the rate of the reaction differs from one system to another. However, the general principle is impolicy slave that by binding of the systhesis by, substrate to essay on the impolicy african slave trade, the enzyme, the reaction involving the practice, substrate is made more favourable by lowering the activation energy of the reaction. In terms of energetics, reactions can be either exergonic (releasing energy) or endergonic (consuming energy). However, even in an exergonic reaction a small amount of of the african slave energy, termed the activation energy, is term papers needed to give the reaction a ‘kick start.’ A good analogy is that of a match, the head of which contains a mixture of energy-rich chemicals (phosphorus sesquisulfide and potassium chlorate). When a match burns it releases substantial amounts of light and heat energy (exergonically reacting with O 2 in the air). However, and on the of the trade, perhaps fortunately, a match will not spontaneously ignite, but rather a small input of energy in the form of heat generated through friction (i.e. striking of the match) is systhesis by needed to initiate the reaction. Of course once the match has been struck the amount of energy released is considerable, and of the trade, greatly exceeds the small energy input during the striking process. As shown in Figure 3, enzymes are considered to lower the activation energy of a system by making it energetically easier for the transition state to form.
In the presence of an enzyme catalyst, the formation of the transition state is energetically more favourable (i.e. it requires less energy for the ‘kick start’), thereby accelerating the rate at which the scholarship thesis, reaction will proceed, but not fundamentally changing the energy levels of either the reactant or the product. Properties and mechanisms of enzyme action. Enzyme kinetics is the essay of the african slave, study of factors that determine the speed of enzyme-catalysed reactions. It utilizes some mathematical equations that can be confusing to students when they first encounter them. However, the theory of kinetics is both logical and simple, and it is essential to develop an genetic understanding of this subject in order to be able to appreciate the essay on the african slave, role of enzymes both in metabolism and in biotechnology. Assays (measurements) of argumentative genetic testing enzyme activity can be performed in either a discontinuous or continuous fashion. Discontinuous methods involve mixing the substrate and enzyme together and measuring the product formed after a set period of time, so these methods are generally easy and quick to perform. In general we would use such discontinuous assays when we know little about the system (and are making preliminary investigations), or alternatively when we know a great deal about the system and are certain that the time interval we are choosing is appropriate. In continuous enzyme assays we would generally study the on the of the, rate of an enzyme-catalysed reaction by mixing the enzyme with the substrate and practice writing sentence, continuously measuring the impolicy of the trade, appearance of product over time. Of course we could equally well measure the writing, rate of the reaction by measuring the disappearance of essay on the impolicy slave substrate over time. Apart from the actual direction (one increasing and scholarship, one decreasing), the two values would be identical.
In enzyme kinetics experiments, for convenience we very often use an artificial substrate called a chromogen that yields a brightly coloured product, making the essay of the african, reaction easy to follow using a colorimeter or a spectrophotometer. However, we could in fact use any available analytical equipment that has the capacity to measure the concentration of either the essay genetic, product or the essay on the impolicy of the trade, substrate. In almost all cases we would also add a buffer solution to the mixture. As we shall see, enzyme activity is strongly influenced by pH, so it is important to set the pH at a specific value and systhesis by, keep it constant throughout the experiment. Our first enzyme kinetics experiment may therefore involve mixing a substrate solution (chromogen) with a buffer solution and adding the enzyme. This mixture would then be placed in a spectrophotometer and the appearance of the coloured product would be measured. This would enable us to essay on the of the african trade, follow a rapid reaction which, after a few seconds or minutes, might start to slow down, as shown in scholarship for master in germany, Figure 4. A common reason for this slowing down of the speed (rate) of the on the impolicy, reaction is that the substrate within the term papers, mixture is trade being used up and thus becoming limiting. Scholarship For Master! Alternatively, it may be that the enzyme is unstable and is denaturing over essay of the african slave trade the course of the experiment, or it could be that the pH of the mixture is changing, as many reactions either consume or release protons.
For these reasons, when we are asked to specify the practice writing a thesis, rate of a reaction we do so early on, as soon as the enzyme has been added, and essay of the african trade, when none of the above-mentioned limitations apply. We refer to this initial rapid rate as the initial velocity ( v 0 ). Measurement of the reaction rate at this early stage is also quite straightforward, as the rate is effectively linear, so we can simply draw a straight line and measure the gradient (by dividing the concentration change by the time interval) in order to systhesis by, evaluate the reaction rate over this period. We may now perform a range of similar enzyme assays to evaluate how the initial velocity changes when the substrate or enzyme concentration is altered, or when the pH is changed. These studies will help us to characterize the properties of the enzyme under study. The relationship between enzyme concentration and the rate of the reaction is usually a simple one.
If we repeat the experiment just described, but add 10% more enzyme, the reaction will be 10% faster, and if we double the enzyme concentration the reaction will proceed twice as fast. Thus there is a simple linear relationship between the reaction rate and the amount of enzyme available to on the impolicy of the african trade, catalyse the reaction (Figure 5). This relationship applies both to enzymes in vivo and to those used in papers, biotechnological applications, where regulation of the amount of enzyme present may control reaction rates. When we perform a series of impolicy of the slave enzyme assays using the same enzyme concentration, but with a range of different substrate concentrations, a slightly more complex relationship emerges, as shown in Figure 6. Initially, when the substrate concentration is increased, the rate of reaction increases considerably. However, as the substrate concentration is increased further the practice writing a thesis, effects on on the impolicy of the slave, the reaction rate start to decline, until a stage is reached where increasing the substrate concentration has little further effect on argumentative genetic, the reaction rate. At this point the enzyme is considered to be coming close to essay african slave, saturation with substrate, and demonstrating its maximal velocity ( V max ). Note that this maximal velocity is in fact a theoretical limit that will not be truly achieved in any experiment, although we might come very close to it. The relationship described here is a fairly common one, which a mathematician would immediately identify as a rectangular hyperbola. Case Stroke Therapy! The equation that describes such a relationship is as follows: The two constants a and b thus allow us to describe this hyperbolic relationship, just as with a linear relationship ( y = mx + c ), which can be expressed by essay african slave trade, the two constants m (the slope) and c (the intercept).
We have in fact already defined the constant a — it is V max . The constant b is for master a little more complex, as it is the value on the x -axis that gives half of the maximal value of y . In enzymology we refer to this as the Michaelis constant ( K m ), which is defined as the substrate concentration that gives half-maximal velocity. Our final equation, usually called the Michaelis–Menten equation, therefore becomes: In 1913, Leonor Michaelis and impolicy slave, Maud Menten first showed that it was in fact possible to derive this equation mathematically from first principles, with some simple assumptions about the way in which an enzyme reacts with a substrate to form a product. Central to their derivation is the for master, concept that the reaction takes place via the formation of an ES complex which, once formed, can either dissociate (productively) to release product, or else dissociate in the reverse direction without any formation of product. Thus the reaction can be represented as follows, with k 1 , k ?1 and k 2 being the rate constants of the three individual reaction steps: The Michaelis–Menten derivation requires two important assumptions. Essay Impolicy Slave! The first assumption is that we are considering the initial velocity of the reaction ( v 0 ), when the tense, product concentration will be negligibly small (i.e. [S] ? [P]), such that we can ignore the possibility of any product reverting to substrate. The second assumption is essay impolicy of the slave that the concentration of substrate greatly exceeds the concentration of enzyme (i.e. [S]?[E]). The derivation begins with an equation for practice writing a thesis sentence, the expression of the initial rate, the rate of formation of product, as the rate at which the ES complex dissociates to form product.
This is based upon impolicy of the african, the rate constant k 2 and argumentative essay genetic, the concentration of the ES complex, as follows: 1. Since ES is an intermediate, its concentration is unknown, but we can express it in terms of essay of the slave known values. Essay Genetic! In a steady-state approximation we can assume that although the concentration of substrate and product changes, the concentration of the ES complex itself remains constant. The rate of formation of the ES complex and the rate of slave its breakdown must therefore balance, where: and. Hence, at steady state: This equation can be rearranged to yield [ES] as follows: 2. The Michaelis constant K m can be defined as follows: Equation 2 may thus be simplified to: 3. Since the argumentative essay genetic testing, concentration of substrate greatly exceeds the concentration of impolicy trade enzyme (i.e. [S] ? [E]), the concentration of systhesis by uncombined substrate [S] is almost equal to the total concentration of substrate. The concentration of uncombined enzyme [E] is equal to the total enzyme concentration [E] T minus that combined with substrate [ES].
Introducing these terms to Equation 3 and solving for essay of the slave trade, ES gives us the following: 4. We can then introduce this term into Equation 1 to give: 5. The term k 2 [E] T in fact represents V max , the maximal velocity. Thus Michaelis and Menten were able to derive their final equation as: A more detailed derivation of the Michaelis–Menten equation can be found in many biochemistry textbooks (see section 4 of Recommended Reading section). There are also some very helpful web-based tutorials available on the subject. Michaelis constants have been determined for many commonly used enzymes, and are typically in the lower millimolar range (Table 5). It should be noted that enzymes which catalyse the same reaction, but which are derived from different organisms, can have widely differing K m values. Furthermore, an enzyme with multiple substrates can have quite different K m values for each substrate.
A low K m value indicates that the enzyme requires only a small amount of substrate in order to become saturated. Writers! Therefore the maximum velocity is reached at relatively low substrate concentrations. A high K m value indicates the need for high substrate concentrations in order to impolicy of the, achieve maximum reaction velocity. Thus we generally refer to practice, K m as a measure of the affinity of the enzyme for its substrate—in fact it is an inverse measure, where a high K m indicates a low affinity, and slave trade, vice versa. The K m value tells us several important things about a particular enzyme. An enzyme with a low K m value relative to the physiological concentration of substrate will probably always be saturated with substrate, and will therefore act at a constant rate, regardless of variations in the concentration of papers writers substrate within the physiological range. An enzyme with a high K m value relative to the physiological concentration of on the african trade substrate will not be saturated with substrate, and its activity will therefore vary according to the concentration of substrate, so the rate of formation of product will depend on the availability of substrate. If an enzyme acts on several substrates, the substrate with the lowest K m value is frequently assumed to be that enzyme's ‘natural’ substrate, although this may not be true in a thesis, all cases. If two enzymes (with similar V max ) in different metabolic pathways compete for the same substrate, then if we know the K m values for the two enzymes we can predict the impolicy of the african slave trade, relative activity of the two pathways.
Essentially the pathway that has the enzyme with the lower K m value is occupational therapy likely to be the ‘preferred pathway’, and essay on the impolicy of the african, more substrate will flow through that pathway under most conditions. Therapy! For example, phosphofructokinase (PFK) is the enzyme that catalyses the essay, first committed step in the glycolytic pathway, which generates energy in term writers, the form of ATP for the cell, whereas glucose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase (GUT) is an enzyme early in african trade, the pathway leading to the synthesis of glycogen (an energy storage molecule). Both enzymes use hexose monophosphates as substrates, but the K m of PFK for its substrate is should an essay or present tense lower than that of GUT for its substrate. Thus at essay on the impolicy trade lower cellular hexose phosphate concentrations, PFK will be active and GUT will be largely inactive. At higher hexose phosphate concentrations both pathways will be active. This means that the cells only systhesis by, store glycogen in essay of the, times of plenty, and always give preference to the pathway of ATP production, which is the more essential function. Very often it is not possible to estimate K m values from a direct plot of velocity against substrate concentration (as shown in Figure 6) because we have not used high enough substrate concentrations to come even close to estimating maximal velocity, and therefore we cannot evaluate half-maximal velocity and thus K m . Fortunately, we can plot our experimental data in writers, a slightly different way in order to essay of the slave, obtain these values. The most commonly used alternative is the Lineweaver–Burk plot (often called the double-reciprocal plot). This plot linearizes the hyperbolic curved relationship, and be written in past, the line produced is easy to extrapolate, allowing evaluation of V max and K m . On The Impolicy Of The Trade! For example, if we obtained only the first seven data points in Figure 6, we would have difficulty estimating V max from a direct plot as shown in Figure 7a.
However, as shown in Figure 7b, if these seven points are plotted on a graph of 1/velocity against 1/substrate concentration (i.e. Systhesis By! a double-reciprocal plot), the data are linearized, and the line can be easily extrapolated to the left to on the trade, provide intercepts on both the y -axis and the x -axis, from which V max and K m , respectively, can be evaluated. One significant practical drawback of using the Lineweaver–Burk plot is the systhesis by, excessive influence that it gives to measurements made at the lowest substrate concentrations. These concentrations might well be the most prone to error (due to difficulties in making multiple dilutions), and slave trade, result in reaction rates that, because they are slow, might also be most prone to measurement error. Often, as shown in term papers writers, Figure 8, such points when transformed on the Lineweaver–Burk plot have a significant impact on the line of best fit estimated from the data, and therefore on the extrapolated values of impolicy trade both V max and K m . Case Study Stroke Patient Therapy! The two sets of essay on the trade points shown in Figure 8 are identical except for writing sentence, the single point at the top right, which reflects (because of the plot's double-reciprocal nature) a single point derived from a very low substrate concentration and a low reaction rate. Essay Impolicy Of The Slave Trade! However, this single point can have an enormous impact on the line of best fit and the accompanying estimates of writers kinetic constants. In fact there are other kinetic plots that can be used, including the Eadie–Hofstee plot, the Hanes plot and the Eisenthal–Cornish-Bowden plot, which are less prone to such problems. However, the Lineweaver–Burk plot is still the most commonly described kinetic plot in the majority of enzymology textbooks, and impolicy of the african, thus retains its influence in term writers, undergraduate education. Enzymes are affected by pH and temperature. Various environmental factors are able to affect the rate of enzyme-catalysed reactions through reversible or irreversible changes in the protein structure. The effects of pH and on the of the african slave, temperature are generally well understood.
Most enzymes have a characteristic optimum pH at which the velocity of the argumentative genetic, catalysed reaction is maximal, and above and below which the velocity declines (Figure 9). The pH profile is dependent on a number of factors. As the pH changes, the ionization of groups both at the enzyme's active site and on the substrate can alter, influencing the rate of binding of the substrate to the active site. These effects are often reversible. Essay On The African Trade! For example, if we take an enzyme with an optimal pH (pH opt ) of 7.0 and practice writing, place it in an environment at pH 6.0 or 8.0, the charge properties of the enzyme and the substrate may be suboptimal, such that binding and hence the reaction rate are lowered. If we then readjust the pH to 7.0, the optimal charge properties and essay african trade, hence the maximal activity of the enzyme are often restored. Genetic! However, if we place the enzyme in a more extreme acidic or alkaline environment (e.g. at pH 1 or 14), although these conditions may not actually lead to changes in the very stable covalent structure of the protein (i.e. Essay Impolicy Of The! its configuration), they may well produce changes in the conformation (shape) of the protein such that, when it is scholarship in germany returned to pH 7.0, the original conformation and hence the enzyme's full catalytic activity are not restored. It should be noted that the optimum pH of an enzyme may not be identical to essay on the of the, that of its normal intracellular surroundings. This indicates that the local pH can exert a controlling influence on enzyme activity. The effects of temperature on enzyme activity are quite complex, and can be regarded as two forces acting simultaneously but in opposite directions. As the temperature is raised, the rate of molecular movement and hence the rate of reaction increases, but at the same time there is a progressive inactivation caused by denaturation of the enzyme protein.
This becomes more pronounced as the temperature increases, so that an apparent temperature optimum (T opt ) is observed (Figure 10). Thermal denaturation is an essay be written in past or present time dependent, and for an enzyme the essay impolicy slave, term ‘optimum temperature’ has little real meaning unless the duration of exposure to that temperature is recorded. The thermal stability of an enzyme can be determined by papers writers, first exposing the protein to a range of temperatures for a fixed period of time, and subsequently measuring its activity at one favourable temperature (e.g. 25°C). The temperature at which denaturation becomes important varies from one enzyme to another. Normally it is negligible below 30°C, and starts to become appreciable above 40°C. Typically, enzymes derived from microbial sources show much higher thermal stability than do those from mammalian sources, and enzymes derived from extremely thermophilic microorganisms, such as thermolysin (a protease from Bacillus thermoproteolyticus ) and Taq polymerase (a DNA polymerase from Thermus aquaticus ), might be completely thermostable at on the impolicy of the trade 70°C and still retain substantial levels of activity even at 100°C. Enzymes are sensitive to inhibitors. Substances that reduce the activity of an should an essay in past or present tense enzyme-catalysed reaction are known as inhibitors.
They act by on the slave trade, either directly or indirectly influencing the catalytic properties of the active site. Inhibitors can be foreign to for master in germany, the cell or natural components of it. Those in the latter category can represent an important element of the regulation of cell metabolism. Many toxins and also many pharmacologically active agents (both illegal drugs and prescription and over-the-counter medicines) act by on the impolicy of the african trade, inhibiting specific enzyme-catalysed processes. Inhibitors are classified as reversible inhibitors when they bind reversibly to scholarship thesis, an enzyme. A molecule that is structurally similar to the normal substrate may be able to impolicy slave, bind reversibly to the enzyme's active site and be written in past tense, therefore act as a competitive inhibitor.
For example, malonate is a competitive inhibitor of the enzyme succinate dehydrogenase, as it is capable of binding to the enzyme's active site due to its close structural similarity to the enzyme's natural substrate, succinate (see below). When malonate occupies the active site of succinate dehydrogenase it prevents the natural substrate, succinate, from binding, thereby slowing down the rate of oxidation of succinate to fumarate (i.e. inhibiting the reaction). One of the characteristics of essay on the impolicy of the slave trade competitive inhibitors is that they can be displaced from the active site if high concentrations of substrate are used, thereby restoring enzyme activity. Thus competitive inhibitors increase the a thesis, K m of a reaction because they increase the concentration of substrate required to saturate the enzyme. However, they do not change V max itself.
In the case of certain enzymes, high concentrations of either the substrate or the product can be inhibitory. On The Impolicy African Trade! For example, invertase activity is an essay be written or present considerably reduced in the presence of high concentrations of sucrose (its substrate), whereas the ?-galactosidase of Aspergillus niger is strongly inhibited by galactose (its product). Products of an enzyme reaction are some of the most commonly encountered competitive inhibitors. Other types of reversible inhibitor also exist. Non-competitive inhibitors react with the enzyme at on the impolicy of the slave trade a site distinct from the active site. Therefore the binding of the inhibitor does not physically block the a thesis, substrate–binding site, but it does prevent subsequent reaction. Most non-competitive inhibitors are chemically unrelated to the substrate, and their inhibition cannot be overcome by essay african slave, increasing the substrate concentration. Such inhibitors in effect reduce the concentration of the active enzyme in solution, thereby reducing the V max of the reaction. An Essay Or Present Tense! However, they do not change the value of essay on the african trade K m . Uncompetitive inhibition is case study patient therapy rather rare, occurring when the inhibitor is essay on the of the slave trade only able to bind to the enzyme once a substrate molecule has itself bound. Argumentative Essay! As such, inhibition is most significant at high substrate concentrations, and impolicy slave, results in a reduction in the V max of the should an essay or present tense, reaction. On The Of The African! Uncompetitive inhibition also causes a reduction in K m , which seems somewhat counterintuitive as this means that the affinity of the enzyme for its substrate is actually increased when the should in past tense, inhibitor is present.
This effect occurs because the binding of the essay impolicy of the african trade, inhibitor to the ES complex effectively removes ES complex and thereby affects the overall equilibrium of the papers, reaction favouring ES complex formation. It is noteworthy however that since both V max and K m are reduced the observed reaction rates with inhibitor present are always lower than those in the absence of the uncompetitive inhibitor. Irreversible inhibitors and poisons. If an inhibitor binds permanently to essay african slave trade, an enzyme it is known as an irreversible inhibitor. Many irreversible inhibitors are therefore potent toxins. Organophosphorus compounds such as diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP) inhibit acetylcholinesterase activity by systhesis by, reacting covalently with an important serine residue found within the active site of the enzyme. The physiological effect of this inactivation is impolicy of the interference with neurotransmitter inactivation at the synapses of nerves, resulting in the constant propagation of nerve impulses, which can lead to death.
DFP was originally evaluated by the British as a chemical warfare agent during World War Two, and scholarship for master, modified versions of this compound are now widely used as organophosphate pesticides (e.g. parathione, malathione). Allosteric regulators and the control of essay on the of the slave trade enzyme activity. Having spent time learning about systhesis by enzyme kinetics and the Michaelis–Menten relationship, it is often quite disconcerting to find that some of the most important enzymes do not in fact display such properties. Allosteric enzymes are key regulatory enzymes that control the impolicy african slave, activities of metabolic pathways by responding to inhibitors and practice a thesis, activators. Of The Trade! These enzymes in fact show a sigmoidal (S-shaped) relationship between reaction rate and substrate concentration (Figure 11), rather than the usual hyperbolic relationship. Thus for term papers, allosteric enzymes there is an area where activity is lower than that of an equivalent ‘normal’ enzyme, and also an area where activity is higher than that of an on the impolicy slave equivalent ‘normal’ enzyme, with a rapid transition between these two phases. This is rather like a switch that can quickly be changed from ‘off’ (low activity) to ‘on’ (full activity). Most allosteric enzymes are polymeric—that is, they are composed of at least two (and often many more) individual polypeptide chains. They also have multiple active sites where the systhesis by, substrate can bind. Much of our understanding of the function of on the african allosteric enzymes comes from studies of haemoglobin which, although it is not an enzyme, binds oxygen in a similarly co-operative way and thus also demonstrates this sigmoidal relationship. Allosteric enzymes have an stroke patient occupational therapy initially low affinity for the substrate, but when a single substrate molecule binds, this may break some bonds within the enzyme and thereby change the shape of the protein such that the remaining active sites are able to bind with a higher affinity.
Therefore allosteric enzymes are often described as moving from a tensed state or T-state (low affinity) in which no substrate is impolicy african trade bound, to a relaxed state or R-state (high affinity) as substrate binds. Other molecules can also bind to allosteric enzymes, at additional regulatory sites (i.e. not at the active site). Molecules that stabilize the protein in its T-state therefore act as allosteric inhibitors, whereas molecules that move the protein to its R-state will act as allosteric activators or promoters. A good example of an allosteric enzyme is aspartate transcarbamoylase (ATCase), a key regulatory enzyme that catalyses the first committed step in the sequence of reactions that produce the systhesis by, pyrimidine nucleotides which are essential components of DNA and RNA. The reaction is as follows: The end product in the pathway, the pyrimidine nucleotide cytidine triphosphate (CTP), is an active allosteric inhibitor of the enzyme ATCase. Therefore when there is a high concentration of CTP in the cell, this feeds back and inhibits the ATCase enzyme, reducing its activity and thus lowering the rate of production of further pyrimidine nucleotides.
As the concentration of CTP in the cell decreases then so does the inhibition of ATCase, and the resulting increase in enzyme activity leads to the production of more pyrimidine nucleotides. On The Impolicy Of The African Slave! This negative feedback inhibition is an important element of biochemical homeostasis within the cell. However, in order to synthesize DNA and RNA, the cell requires not only pyrimidine nucleotides but also purine nucleotides, and these are needed in practice writing a thesis sentence, roughly equal proportions. Purine synthesis occurs through a different pathway, but interestingly the african slave trade, final product, the purine nucleotide adenosine triphosphate (ATP), is a potent activator of the enzyme ATCase. This is logical, since when the cell contains high concentrations of purine nucleotides it will require equally high concentrations of essay testing pyrimidine nucleotides in order for these two types of nucleotide to combine to essay on the impolicy of the african slave, form the polymers DNA and RNA. Thus ATCase is able to regulate the production of pyrimidine nucleotides within the cell according to cellular demand, and also to ensure that pyrimidine nucleotide synthesis is synchronized with purine nucleotide synthesis—an elegant biochemical mechanism for the regulation of an essay extremely important metabolic process.
There are some rare, although important, cases of monomeric enzymes that have only one substrate-binding site but are capable of demonstrating the essay impolicy, sigmoidal reaction kinetics characteristic of allosteric enzymes. Particularly noteworthy in this context is the monomeric enzyme glucokinase (also called hexokinase IV), which catalyses the study patient therapy, phosphorylation of glucose to glucose-6-phosphate (which may then either be metabolized by the glycolytic pathway or be used in glycogen synthesis). It has been postulated that this kinetic behaviour is a result of individual glucokinase molecules existing in one of two forms—a low-affinity form and essay impolicy of the african slave trade, a high-affinity form. The low-affinity form of the enzyme reacts with its substrate (glucose), is then turned into the high-affinity form, and remains in that state for a short time before slowly returning to study stroke patient therapy, its original low-affinity form (demonstrating a so-called slow transition). Therefore at high substrate concentrations the enzyme is essay of the slave trade likely to react with a second substrate molecule soon after the first one (i.e. while still in argumentative testing, its high-affinity form), whereas at lower substrate concentrations the enzyme may transition back to its low-affinity form before it reacts with subsequent substrate molecules. This results in its characteristic sigmoidal reaction kinetics. Origin, purification and uses of enzymes. Enzymes are essential components of animals, plants and microorganisms, due to essay on the of the trade, the fact that they catalyse and co-ordinate the complex reactions of cellular metabolism.
Up until the 1970s, most of the commercial application of enzymes involved animal and plant sources. At that time, bulk enzymes were generally only used within the food-processing industry, and enzymes from animals and plants were preferred, as they were considered to be free from the problems of toxicity and contamination that were associated with enzymes of occupational microbial origin. However, as demand grew and as fermentation technology developed, the competitive cost of microbial enzymes was recognized and they became more widely used. Compared with enzymes from plant and animal sources, microbial enzymes have economic, technical and ethical advantages, which will now be outlined. The sheer quantity of enzyme that can be produced within a short time, and in essay of the african slave, a small production facility, greatly favours the argumentative essay, use of microorganisms. For example, during the production of rennin (a milk-coagulating enzyme used in cheese manufacture) the traditional approach is to use the enzyme extracted from the stomach of a calf (a young cow still feeding on its mother's milk). The average quantity of rennet extracted from a calf's stomach is 10 kg, and it takes several months of essay on the impolicy african slave trade intensive farming to produce a calf. In comparison, a 1 000-litre fermenter of recombinant Bacillus subtilis can produce 20 kg of enzyme within 12 h. Thus the microbial product is clearly preferable economically, and is free from the ethical issues that surround the use of an essay be written in past or present tense animals. Indeed, most of the cheese now sold in supermarkets is made from milk coagulated with microbial enzymes (so is suitable for vegetarians).
A further advantage of using microbial enzymes is their ease of extraction. Many of the microbial enzymes used in biotechnological processes are secreted extracellularly, which greatly simplifies their extraction and purification. Microbial intracellular enzymes are also often easier to obtain than the equivalent animal or plant enzymes, as they generally require fewer extraction and on the slave, purification steps. Animal and plant sources usually need to be transported to in germany, the extraction facility, whereas when microorganisms are used the same facility can generally be employed for production and extraction. In addition, commercially important animal and plant enzymes are often located within only one organ or tissue, so the essay impolicy african trade, remaining material is essentially a waste product, disposal of which is required.
Finally, enzymes from plant and argumentative essay genetic testing, animal sources show wide variation in impolicy of the, yield, and may only should be written in past tense, be available at certain times of essay on the of the year, whereas none of systhesis by these problems are associated with microbial enzymes. Microbial enzymes often have properties that make them more suitable for commercial exploitation. In comparison with enzymes from animal and essay on the impolicy african slave, plant sources, the stability of microbial enzymes is usually high. For example, the should be written in past tense, high temperature stability of enzymes from thermophilic microorganisms is often useful when the process must operate at high temperatures (e.g. during starch processing). Microorganisms are also very amenable to genetic modification to produce novel or altered enzymes, using relatively simple methods such as plasmid insertion.
The genetic manipulation of animals and plants is technically much more difficult, is more expensive and is still the essay on the of the african slave, subject of significant ethical concern, especially in for master thesis in germany, the U.K. Enzymes may be intracellular or extracellular. Although many enzymes are retained within the cell, and may be located in essay of the slave trade, specific subcellular compartments, others are released into the surrounding environment. The majority of for master in germany enzymes in industrial use are extracellular proteins from either fungal sources (e.g. Aspergillus species) or bacterial sources (e.g.
Bacillus species). Examples of these include ?-amylase, cellulase, dextranase, proteases and amyloglucosidase. Many other enzymes for non-industrial use are intracellular and are produced in much smaller amounts by the cell. Examples of these include asparaginase, catalase, cholesterol oxidase, glucose oxidase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. Within the cell, enzymes are generally found along with other proteins, nucleic acids, polysaccharides and lipids. The activity of the enzyme in relation to the total protein present (i.e. the specific activity) can be determined and used as a measure of enzyme purity. A variety of essay on the african methods can be used to remove contaminating material in order to systhesis by, purify the enzyme and increase its specific activity. Enzymes that are used as diagnostic reagents and in clinical therapeutics are normally prepared to on the african, a high degree of purity, because great emphasis is placed on the specificity of the reaction that is being catalysed. Clearly the higher the level of purification, the an essay in past tense, greater the cost of enzyme production. In the case of essay impolicy many bulk industrial enzymes the degree of argumentative essay testing purification is less important, and such enzymes may often be sold as very crude preparations of culture broth containing the growth medium, organisms (whole or fragmented) and enzymes of interest.
However, even when the cheapest bulk enzymes are utilized (e.g. proteases for use in washing powders), the enzyme cost can contribute around 5–10% of the final product value. At the end of a fermentation in which a microorganism rich in the required enzyme has been cultured, the broth may be cooled rapidly to 5°C to prevent further microbial growth and stabilize the enzyme product. The pH may also be adjusted to optimize enzyme stability. If the enzyme-producing organism is a fungus, this may be removed by impolicy african slave, centrifugation at low speed. If the enzyme source is bacterial, the scholarship for master in germany, bacteria are often flocculated with aluminum sulfate or calcium chloride, which negate the on the impolicy african trade, charge on the bacterial membranes, causing them to clump and thus come out of suspension. Extracellular enzymes are found in the liquid component of the pretreatment process. However, intracellular enzymes require more extensive treatment. The biomass may be concentrated by centrifugation and washed to remove medium components.
The cellular component must then be ruptured to release the enzyme content. This can be done using one or more of the following processes: • ball milling (using glass beads) • enzymic removal of the cell wall. • liquid shearing through a small orifice at high pressure (e.g. within a French press) Separation of enzymes from the resulting solution may then involve a variety of separation processes, which are often employed in systhesis by, a sequential fashion. The first step in an enzyme purification procedure commonly involves separation of the proteins from the on the impolicy of the african, non-protein components by a process of systhesis by salting out. Proteins remain in aqueous solution because of interactions between the hydrophilic (water-loving) amino acids and the surrounding water molecules (the solvent). If the ionic strength of the solvent is of the african slave trade increased by adding an agent such as ammonium sulfate, some of the water molecules will interact with the study therapy, salt ions, thereby decreasing the number of on the impolicy slave water molecules available to interact with the protein.
Under such conditions, when protein molecules cannot interact with the solvent, they interact with each other, coagulating and coming out of solution in the form of a precipitate. This precipitate (containing the enzyme of interest and for master thesis, other proteins) can then be filtered or centrifuged, and separated from the supernatant. Since different proteins vary in essay of the slave, the extent to practice writing a thesis, which they interact with water, it is possible to perform this process using a series of additions of ammonium sulfate, increasing the ionic strength in a stepwise fashion and removing the precipitate at essay impolicy of the african each stage. Thus such fractional precipitation is not only capable of separating protein from non-protein components, but can also enable separation of the enzyme of interest from argumentative essay genetic some of the other protein components. Subsequently a wide variety of techniques may be used for further purification, and essay of the slave, steps involving chromatography are standard practice. Ion-exchange chromatography is often effective during the early stages of the purification process. Writing! The protein solution is added to a column containing an insoluble polymer (e.g. On The Of The African Trade! cellulose) that has been modified so that its ionic characteristics will determine the type of mobile ion (i.e. Papers Writers! cation or anion) it attracts.
Proteins whose net charge is essay on the opposite to that of the ion-exchange material will bind to it, whereas all other proteins will pass through the column. A subsequent change in pH or the introduction of a salt solution will alter the for master, electrostatic forces, allowing the retained protein to be released into solution again. Gel filtration can be utilized in essay on the impolicy african slave trade, the later stages of a purification protocol to separate molecules on the basis of stroke patient occupational molecular size. Essay On The! Columns containing a bed of cross-linked gel particles such as Sephadex are used. Writing A Thesis Sentence! These gel particles exclude large protein molecules while allowing the on the impolicy of the african, entry of for master thesis smaller molecules. Separation occurs because the larger protein molecules follow a path down the column between the Sephadex particles (occupying a smaller fraction of the column volume). Larger molecules therefore have a shorter elution time and impolicy african slave trade, are recovered first from the gel filtration column. Affinity chromatography procedures can often enable purification protocols to be substantially simplified.
Typically, with respect to testing, enzyme purification, a column would be packed with a particulate stationary phase to which a ligand molecule such as a substrate analogue, inhibitor or cofactor of the enzyme of on the impolicy of the interest would be firmly bound. As the sample mixture is term papers passed through the column, the enzyme interacts with, and binds, to on the impolicy of the slave, the immobilised ligand, being retained within the column as all of the other components of the mixture pass through the study stroke occupational therapy, column unrewarded. Subsequently a solution of the ligand is introduced to the column to release (elute) and thereby recover the bound enzyme from the column in a highly purified form. Nowadays numerous alternative affinity chromatography procedures exist that are able to separate enzymes by essay on the impolicy of the african trade, binding to areas of the molecule away form their active site. Advances in molecular biology enable us to purify recombinant proteins, including enzymes, through affinity tagging. In a typical approach the practice writing a thesis sentence, gene for the enzyme of interest would be modified to code for a further short amino acid sequence at either the essay of the african, N- or C- terminal. For example, a range of polyhistidine tagging procedures are available to yield protein products with six or more consecutive histidine residues at their N- or C- terminal end. When a mixture containing the tagged protein of term writers interest is on the african slave trade subsequently passed through a column containing a nickel-nitrilotriacetic acid (Ni-NTA) agarose resin, the histidine residues on stroke patient occupational therapy, the recombinant protein bind to the nickel ions attached to the support resin, retaining the protein, whilst other protein and non-protein components pass through the essay slave, column. Elution of the bound protein can then be accomplished by adding imidazole to the column, or by reducing the for master in germany, pH to 5-6 to displace the His-tagged protein from the nickel ions. Such techniques are therefore capable of rapidly and essay on the slave trade, highly effectively isolating an enzyme from a complex mixture in only one step, and practice writing, typically provide protein purities of up to 95%. If more highly purified enzyme products are required, other supplemental options are also available, including various forms of impolicy slave trade preparative electrophoresis e.g. Should Be Written In Past Tense! disc-gel electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing.
Enzymes are antigenic, and since problems occurred in the late 1960s when manufacturing workers exhibited severe allergic responses after breathing enzyme dusts, procedures have now been implemented to essay on the of the, reduce dust formation. These involve supplying enzymes as liquids wherever possible, or increasing the particle size of dry powders from 10 ?m to 200–500 ?m by either prilling (mixing the enzyme with polyethylene glycol and preparing small spheres by atomization) or marumerizing (mixing the writing a thesis, enzyme with a binder and water, extruding long filaments, converting them into spheres in a marumerizer, drying them and covering them with a waxy coat). Although many industrial processes, such as cheese manufacturing, have traditionally used impure enzyme sources, often from animals or plants, the development of much of modern industrial enzymology has gone hand in hand with the commercial exploitation of microbial enzymes. These were introduced to the West in around 1890 when the Japanese scientist Jokichi Takamine settled in the U.S.A. and set up an enzyme factory based on on the impolicy, Japanese technology. The principal product was Takadiastase, a mixture of amylolytic and proteolytic enzymes prepared by cultivating the fungus Aspergillus oryzae on rice or wheat bran. Takadiastase was marketed successfully in systhesis by, the U.S.A. as a digestive aid for the treatment of dyspepsia, which was then believed to result from the impolicy of the slave, incomplete digestion of starch. Bacterial enzymes were developed in an essay be written in past or present, France by August Boidin and Jean Effront, who in 1913 found that Bacillus subtilis produced a heat-stable ?-amylase when grown in impolicy of the slave trade, a liquid medium made by extraction of malt or grain. The enzyme was primarily used within the systhesis by, textile industry for the removal of the starch that protects the warp in the manufacture of essay of the african slave trade cotton.
In around 1930 it was found that fungal pectinases could be used in the preparation of argumentative essay genetic fruit products. In subsequent years, several other hydrolases were developed and essay on the impolicy of the african trade, sold commercially (e.g. pectosanase, cellulase, lipase), but the technology was still fairly rudimentary. After World War Two the fermentation industry underwent rapid development as methods for term papers, the production of antibiotics were developed. These methods were soon adapted for the production of enzymes. In the 1960s, glucoamylase was introduced as a means of hydrolysing starch, replacing acid hydrolysis. Subsequently, in the 1960s and 1970s, proteases were incorporated into detergents and then glucose isomerase was introduced to impolicy of the african trade, produce sweetening agents in the form of high-fructose syrups.
Since the 1990s, lipases have been incorporated into washing powders, and a variety of immobilized enzyme processes have been developed (see section on a thesis sentence, enzyme immobilization), many of which utilize intracellular enzymes. Currently, enzymes are used in four distinct fields of commerce and technology (Table 6): • as industrial catalysts. • as therapeutic agents. • as analytic reagents. • as manipulative tools (e.g. in genetics). Of the thousands of different types of enzymes, about 95% are available from suppliers in essay african slave trade, quantities ranging from ?g to kg, provided essentially for research purposes. Around 40–50 enzymes are produced on an industrial scale (i.e. Scholarship For Master! ranging from multiple kilograms to tonnes per annum).
The global enzyme market is currently dominated by the hydrolases, especially the proteases, together with amylases, cellulases and lipases supplied either as liquid concentrates or as powders or granules that release the on the of the slave, soluble enzyme on dissolution. Global production is dominated by two companies, which between them supply more than two-thirds of the global enzyme market, namely the Danish company Novozymes, with a market share of be written or present 47%, and the U.S. company DuPont (which recently acquired Genencor), with 21%. The value of the world enzyme market has increased steadily from ?110 million in 1960 to ?200 million in 1970, ?270 million in 1980, ?1 000 million in 1990 and over ?2 000 million in 2010. On The African Slave! Food and beverage enzymes represented the largest sector of the scholarship for master in germany, industrial enzymes market in 2010, with a value of ?750 million, and the market for essay impolicy of the african, enzymes for technical applications (including diagnostic applications, research and biotechnology) accounted for a further ?700 million. Estimates of future demand are in the range of should an essay be written in past tense ?4 000–5 000 million between 2015 and essay on the impolicy slave, 2016, growing at a rate of 6–7% annually. The developing economies of the Asia-Pacific Region, the Middle East and Africa are now seen to be emerging as the fastest growing markets for industrial enzymes. Microbial enzymes are typically produced in batches by thesis, culturing the producing organism within a batch fermenter. Essay African Slave Trade! Fermentation typically lasts between 30 and 150 h, with the optimum enzyme yield for the process falling somewhere between the optimum biomass yield and the point of maximal enzyme activity within the cells. Relatively small fermenters with a volume of 10–100 m 3 are generally employed, allowing flexibility where a number of should an essay be written in past tense different products are being produced.
Many production systems are optimized by on the of the slave, means of a fed-batch process, in which substrates are gradually fed into the reactor over the course of the fermentation, rather than being provided all at once at the start of the process. True continuous culture techniques have been used in laboratory-scale studies, but have not been widely implemented on a commercial scale, although Novozymes does have a continuous process for papers, the production of glucose isomerase, since this is a larger-volume market and the company has a very strong market share. During the production of commercially important products via enzymatic catalysis, soluble enzymes have traditionally been used in batch processes that employ some form of stirred-tank reactor (STR). In these processes, at the end of the batch run the product must be separated from any unused substrate, and also from the enzyme catalyst. Removal of the enzyme at this stage can be achieved by thermal denaturation (only if the product is thermostable) or by ammonium sulfate precipitation or ultrafiltration. These processes represent a costly downstream processing stage and generally render the enzyme inactive, so when a new batch run is to be started a fresh batch of enzyme is required. Immobilized enzyme systems, in on the african slave trade, contrast, ‘fix’ the enzyme so that it can be reused many times, which has a significant impact on production costs. As a very simple example, if an enzyme is mixed with a solution of warm (but not too hot) agar and or present, this is allowed to set, the essay on the of the african, enzyme will be entrapped (for the writing a thesis, purposes of this example let us ignore the essay impolicy of the trade, fact that the enzyme will gradually leak out of this gel). Practice Sentence! The agar can then be cut up into cubes and impolicy of the slave trade, these can be placed in a STR, together with substrate, as shown in Figure 12. Again the reaction would be allowed to systhesis by, proceed (and it might actually be slower due to essay impolicy of the african slave, diffusional constraints and other effects described later).
At the papers writers, end of the batch run the catalyst can now be easily separated from the of the, product by in germany, passing the reactor contents through a coarse mesh. Immediately an important downstream processing step has been carried out essay on the impolicy african trade and, just as importantly, the active enzyme has been recovered so that it can be reused for the next batch run. This ease of separation of enzyme from product is a major advantage of all immobilized systems over their counterparts that use free (i.e. soluble) enzyme. This physical advantage of ease of reuse of immobilized biocatalysts is one of the main reasons why such systems are favoured commercially. However, immobilization may also produce biochemical changes that lead to enhanced biocatalyst stability, which may be manifested as: • an increased rate of catalysis.
• prolonged duration of catalysis. • greater operational stability to extremes of scholarship thesis pH, temperature, etc. The particular advantage(s) conferred by immobilization will therefore differ from one system to another. It should be noted that often there may be no biochemical advantage at all, and the simple physical advantage of ease of separation of the biocatalyst from the product may be sufficient to essay impolicy african slave trade, favour the commercial development of an immobilized process. At this point one problem that will immediately spring to mind for most students is that they have always been taught to patient, fully mix all of the reagents of a reaction, yet the basic principle of immobilization is to partition the biocatalyst into a distinct phase, rather than mix it homogeneously with the substrate. Will this not cause reaction rates to be low? The answer to this question is yes, and the relationship between the activity of an immobilized system and a non-immobilized system can be expressed as the on the impolicy african slave, effectiveness factor (?), where: Thus an immobilized system with an effectiveness factor of 0.1 would show only 10% of the scholarship thesis, activity of a non-immobilized system with the same amount of enzyme and operating under the same conditions. At first sight this might appear to be a major problem. However, if it is possible to reuse the on the impolicy slave trade, biocatalyst many times this is still economically viable, even with systems that have a low effectiveness factor.
In principle, therefore, for essay genetic, economic viability: Thus if an immobilized system has an effectiveness factor of 0.1 (i.e. 10%) and we can reuse the biocatalyst 10 times, we essentially achieve the same overall catalytic activity with both the non-immobilized system and african slave trade, the immobilized one. However, if we are able to reuse the biocatalyst 100 times we in fact obtain 10 times more total activity from the immobilized system than from the equivalent non-immobilized system, so the immobilized system may be economically preferable. Once a biocatalyst has been immobilized it can also be put in a range of continuous-flow reactors, enabling a continuous supply of substrate to be turned into product as it passes through the reactor. Systhesis By! The control of such continuous-flow reactors can be highly automated, leading to considerable savings in production costs. For example, a STR can be easily modified to produce a continuous-flow stirred-tank reactor (CSTR) (Figure 13a), in which the enzyme is held within the reactor by a coarse mesh, and the product continuously flows out of the essay on the impolicy african slave trade, reactor as substrate is pumped in. It is also possible to produce a packed-bed reactor (PBR) (Figure 13b), in which the agar cubes are packed into a column and the substrate is pumped through the bed without any need for stirring. CSTRs and PBRs enable the practice a thesis, enzyme to essay on the impolicy slave, be reused many times before it needs to be replaced. For example, in the production of high-fructose syrups, the immobilized glucose isomerase enzyme would typically be used continuously for between 2 and 4 months, and only after this time (when its activity would have dropped to 25% of the scholarship for master thesis, original level) would it need to essay of the slave trade, be replaced. The overall operating costs of continuous-flow reactors are often significantly lower than those of equivalent batch processes.
Batch reactors need to be emptied and refilled frequently at regular intervals. Not only is this procedure expensive, but it also means that there are considerable periods of time when such reactors are not productive (so-called ‘downtime’). In addition, batch processes make uneven demands on both labour and services. They may also result in systhesis by, pronounced batch-to-batch variations, as the reaction conditions change with time, and they may be difficult to scale up, due to the changing power requirements for efficient mixing. Essay Impolicy Of The African Trade! Due to an essay, their higher overall process efficiency, continuous processes using immobilized enzymes may be undertaken in production facilities that are around 10 to 100 times smaller than those required for equivalent batch processes using soluble enzymes. Therefore the capital costs involved in setting up the facility are also considerably lower. It should be noted that although the agar entrapment method described here has provided a useful example, it is not a particularly effective form of immobilization. The high temperature required to prevent the agar from setting may lead to essay on the impolicy of the, thermal inactivation of the enzyme, and the agar gel itself is very porous and will allow the enzyme to leak out into the surrounding solution. There are in fact thousands of different techniques of an essay in past tense immobilization, all of which are much more effective than our example.
In general these techniques can be classified as belonging to one of three categories (Figure 14): The physical adsorption of an enzyme to on the impolicy of the african trade, a supporting matrix is the oldest method of immobilization. As early as 1916, J.M. Nelson and Edward G. Griffin described the adsorption of yeast invertase on to activated charcoal, and the subsequent use of this preparation for sucrose hydrolysis. Over the years a variety of adsorbents have been used, including cellulose, Sephadex, polystyrene, kaolinite, collagen, alumina, silica gel and glass.
Such immobilization procedures are extremely easy to perform, as the adsorbent and enzyme are simply stirred together for a time (typically minutes to hours). The binding forces that immobilize the catalyst on the support may involve hydrogen bonds, van der Waals forces, ionic interactions or hydrophobic interactions. Such forces are generally weak in comparison with covalent bonds—for example, a hydrogen bond has an energy content of about 20 kJ mol ?1 , compared with 200–500 kJ mol ?1 for a covalent bond. Thus, when using such methods, yields (i.e. the amount of enzyme bound per unit of writing sentence adsorbent) are generally low. In addition, adsorption is generally easily reversed, and can lead to essay african trade, desorption of the enzyme at a critical time.
However, despite these limitations, such a method was used in the first commercial immobilized enzyme application, namely DEAE–Sephadex-immobilized l -amino acid acylase, in 1969. DEAE–Sephadex is an ion-exchange resin that consists of an inert dextran particle activated by the addition of numerous diethylaminoethyl groups. Particles of this material remain positively charged at pH 6–8 (see Figure 15a) and thus bind strongly to proteins, which are generally negatively charged in this pH range. Case Study Patient Therapy! If the on the impolicy of the african slave trade, pH is kept constant, the enzyme and support will remain ionically linked. However, when over time the enzyme loses its activity through denaturation, the pH can be adjusted to a more acidic value, the old enzyme will be desorbed, and the pH can then be readjusted back to pH 6–8 and a fresh batch of enzyme bound. Or Present! Thus the support matrix may be used many times, giving the process significant economic benefits. Clearly DEAE–Sephadex immobilization is african only of value for enzymes that have a neutral-to-alkaline pH optimum. Scholarship! For enzymes that function best under acidic conditions, CM–Sephadex is more suitable.
This contains carboxymethyl groups that remain negatively charged at pH 3.5–4.5 (Figure 15b). Proteins at this pH are generally positively charged and will thus ionically bind to the support. Desorption of the essay on the of the african, enzyme will occur when the pH is adjusted to a more alkaline value. Due to the simplicity and controllability of this immobilization procedure, combined with the economic benefits of reuse of the support, ion-exchange materials are now widely used as the method of choice in many industrial settings. Immobilization of argumentative genetic testing enzymes by covalent bonding to activated polymers is a widely used approach since, although it is often a tedious procedure, it is african slave trade capable of papers producing an immobilized enzyme that is firmly bound to its support. The range of polymers and chemical coupling procedures that are used is essay african slave enormous. The history of covalent bonding for enzyme immobilization dates back to 1949, when F. Michael and J. Ewers used the azide derivative of scholarship for master in germany carboxymethylcellulose to immobilize a variety of proteins. Activated cellulose supports continue to be popular due to their inherent advantages of high hydrophilicity, ready availability, potential for derivatization, and the ease with which cellulose-based polymers can be produced either as particulate powders or as membranous films.
It is often more effective not to build the reactive group into the cellulose itself, but instead to use a chemical ‘bridge’ between the slave, cellulose and the enzyme molecule. The requirements for such a bridging or linking molecule are that it must be small, and that once it has reacted with the practice writing, support it must have a further reactive group capable of reacting with the essay impolicy trade, enzyme. Scholarship For Master Thesis! An example of on the impolicy african slave such a bridging molecule is glutaraldehyde, which contains two aldehyde groups, one at practice a thesis either end of its (CH 2 ) 3 moiety. At neutral pH values the aldehyde groups will react with free amino groups. Thus one end of the glutaraldehyde molecule may be attached to the support, and the other to the enzyme. Covalently immobilized enzymes are strongly bound to their support, so when the proteins denature they are difficult to remove (in contrast to on the impolicy of the, adsorption, as described earlier). Therefore it is usual for both the enzyme and the support to be replaced. This may result in higher operational costs compared with adsorption techniques in which the support may be reused.
The entrapment of an enzyme can be achieved in a number of ways: • inclusion within the matrix of a highly cross-linked polymer. • separation from the bulk phase by practice writing a thesis sentence, a semi-permeable ‘microcapsule’ • dissolution in african slave trade, a distinct non-aqueous phase. An important feature of entrapment techniques is that the enzyme is not in argumentative essay genetic, fact attached to anything. Consequently there are none of the steric problems associated with covalent or adsorption methods (i.e. the possibility of the of the slave, enzyme binding in such a way that its active site is obstructed by essay testing, part of the supporting polymer matrix). The example of an enzyme retained in agar, described earlier, is a useful illustration of entrapment. A preferable alternative involves mixing the catalyst with sodium alginate gel and on the african slave trade, extruding this into a solution of calcium chloride to produce solid calcium alginate particles. This technique has the advantage of not requiring the use of high temperatures. However, although it is a popular activity in teaching laboratories, outside that setting it is generally unsuitable for the immobilization of case stroke patient therapy purified enzymes, as these are often able to essay of the, leak out of the gel. Entrapment techniques for purified enzymes are more likely to or present, involve retaining the enzyme behind some form of ultrafiltration membrane. However, gel entrapment procedures may be useful when dealing with larger catalysts, such as whole cells.
For example, gel-immobilized living yeast cells have been used successfully in impolicy of the african slave trade, the manufacture of argumentative testing champagne by Moet Chandon. Immobilization: changes in impolicy of the slave, enzyme properties. Earlier in this essay it was suggested that immobilization might change the properties of an enzyme to enhance its stability. Initially it was believed that such enhanced stability resulted from the an essay, formation of bonds between the enzyme and the supporting matrix that physically stabilize the structure of the protein. Indeed there are some published reports that describe this phenomenon.
With regard to the stabilization of proteolytic enzymes, which often exhibit more prolonged activity in the immobilized state, this is most probably explained by the fact that such proteases in free solution are prone to autodigestion (i.e. enzyme molecules cleave the peptide bonds of adjacent enzyme molecules), a process that is largely prevented when they are fixed to a supporting matrix. However, the effects of immobilization are more often due to the supporting matrix changing the microenvironment around the enzyme and/or introducing diffusional constraints that modify the activity of the catalyst. Consider, for example, immobilization of the enzyme by adsorption on to a polyanionic (negatively charged) support such as cellulose. Essay Of The African Slave! If the substrate is a cation (i.e. positively charged), it will be attracted to should be written in past or present tense, the support and thus to the enzyme. In this case the enzyme might well display higher activity, as the essay trade, substrate concentration in its microenvironment would be higher than that in the surrounding bulk phase. Other cations would also be attracted, and importantly these would include H + ions. Thus the thesis in germany, microenvironment would also be enriched in H + ions, so the pH surrounding the enzyme would be lower than the pH of the bulk phase. On The African! Consequently the enzyme would also exhibit an altered pH profile compared with that of its soluble counterpart. In addition, the immobilization matrix might act as a barrier to the diffusion of substrates, products and term papers, other molecules.
For example, if a high enzyme loading was put into a gel particle and this was then immersed in substrate solution, the substrate would diffuse into impolicy african slave, the gel and term papers, rapidly be converted into product. Enzyme molecules entrapped deeper within the gel particle might therefore be inactive simply because they had not received any substrate to work on (i.e. all of the substrate was converted to essay on the of the african trade, product in the outer layers of the particle). Although this is obviously somewhat inefficient, it does have one useful effect. When over time the enzyme within the system denatures, the loss of activity of the enzyme in the outer part of the particle means that substrate will now diffuse deeper into the particle to reach the previously unused core enzyme molecules. In effect this inner reserve of enzyme will offset the loss of enzyme activity through denaturation, so the system will show little or no overall loss of activity.
This explains the observation that immobilized systems often have a longer operational lifetime than their soluble equivalents. In addition, it is of interest that enzymes bound to natural cell membranes (phospholipid bilayers) within living cells will also probably demonstrate these effects, and immobilized systems thus provide useful models for the study of such membrane-bound proteins in living cells. The major industrial processes that utilize immobilized enzymes are listed in Table 7. Papers! Sales of essay on the impolicy slave immobilized enzymes peaked in 1990, when they accounted for about 20% of all industrial enzyme sales, almost entirely due to the use of glucose isomerase for the production of should or present sweetening agents. Other commercial applications utilize penicillin acylase, fumarase, ?–galactosidase and amino acid acylase. Since 2000, although there has been consistent growth in enzyme markets, few new processes employing immobilized enzymes have been introduced. The following three examples highlight many of the biochemical, technological and economic considerations relating to the use of immobilized enzymes on a commercial and industrial scale. Undoubtedly the most significant large-scale application of immobilized enzymes involves the production of high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS). Although most of the general public believe that sucrose is on the impolicy african slave trade responsible for systhesis by, the ‘sweetness’ of food and drinks, there have been significant efforts to of the slave trade, replace sucrose with alternative, and essay, often cheaper, soluble caloric sweetening agents. HFCS is a soluble sweetener that has been used in many carbonated soft drinks since the 1980s, including brand-name colas such as Coca-Cola and Pepsi-Cola.
HFCS is of the trade produced by the enzymatic digestion of starch derived from corn (maize). Papers! Developments in HFCS production have been most prominent in countries such as the U.S.A., which have a high capacity to on the of the african, produce starch in the form of corn, but which do not cultivate significant amounts of sugar cane or sugar beet, and must therefore import either the an essay be written tense, raw products (for processing) or the refined sugar (sucrose) itself. Simple corn syrups can be manufactured by breaking down starch derived from corn using the enzyme glucoamylase alone or in combination with ?-amylase. These enzymes are cheap and essay of the african slave trade, can be used in a soluble form. Since starch has to be extracted from argumentative essay corn at high temperatures (because starch has poor solubility at low temperatures and forms very viscous solutions), the process utilizes enzymes from essay on the of the slave trade thermophilic organisms, which have very high temperature optima. Simple corn syrup is therefore composed predominantly of glucose, which unfortunately has only 75% of the sweetness of sucrose. Systhesis By! However, in order to make the of the, syrup sweeter the enzyme glucose isomerase, which catalyses the following reaction, can be employed: This enzyme (described previously in the section on an essay in past tense, properties and mechanisms of essay of the african trade enzyme action) will produce a roughly 50:50 mixture of glucose and study occupational, fructose at equilibrium, and since fructose has 150% of the sweetness of sucrose, this glucose:fructose mixture will have a similar level of sweetness to sucrose.
However, glucose isomerase is an intracellular bacterial enzyme, and would be prohibitively expensive to use in essay impolicy of the trade, a soluble form. This makes it an ideal candidate for use in practice a thesis, an immobilized process. The first glucose isomerase enzyme to be isolated was obtained from species of Pseudomona s in 1957, and more useful enzymes were isolated throughout the 1960s from essay on the impolicy african trade species of Bacillus and Streptomyces. In 1967, the Clinton Corn Processing Company of Iowa, U.S.A. (later renamed CPC International) introduced a batch process that utilized an immobilized glucose isomerase enzyme, and by 1972 the company had developed a continuous process for scholarship for master thesis in germany, the manufacture of HFCS containing 42% fructose using a glucose isomerase enzyme immobilized on a DEAE ion-exchange support. During the essay on the of the trade, late 1970s, advances in enzymology, process engineering and fractionation technology led to the production of syrups with a higher fructose content, and study stroke occupational, today HFCS containing 55% fructose is generally produced, and is commonly used in essay of the slave, soft drinks, although 42% fructose syrups are still also produced for use in some processes, including the production of bakery foodstuffs. In 2010, the U.S. production of HFCS was approximately 8 million metric tons, accounting for 37% of the U.S. caloric sweetener market, and it is estimated that today about 5% of the argumentative essay genetic testing, entire corn crop in the U.S.A. is used to produce HFCS. Within the dairy industry the production of 1 kg of cheese requires about 10 litres of milk, and produces about on the african slave trade 9 litres of whey as a waste product. Whey is a yellowish liquid containing 6% dry matter, of which nearly 80% is lactose. The enzyme lactase (?-galactosidase) may be used to break down lactose to its constituent monosaccharides, namely glucose and galactose, which are more soluble than lactose, and have potential uses as carbon sources in microbial fermentation, and can also be used as caloric sweeteners. Valio Ltd of study occupational therapy Finland has developed arguably the most successful commercial process for the treatment of whey.
Using a lactase enzyme obtained from Aspergillus , immobilized by adsorption and cross-linked on to a support resin, whey syrups are produced that have been utilized as an ingredient in drinks, ice cream and confectionery products. The Aspergillus enzyme has an essay of the african slave trade acid pH optimum of 3–5, and by operating at low pH the process avoids excessive microbial contamination. Treatment plants that utilize 600-litre columns have been built in systhesis by, Finland, and these are used to treat 80 000 litres of whey per day. This technology has also been used to produce whey syrups in England (by Dairy Crest) and in Norway. Similar technology can also be used to remove lactose from milk. Lactose-free milk is produced for consumption by those who have lactose intolerance (a genetic condition), and also for consumption by pets such as cats, which are often unable to digest lactose easily. The first industrial processing facility to use immobilized lactase to essay on the of the slave, treat milk was opened in 1975, when Centrale del Latte of Milan, Italy, utilized a batch process in which yeast ( Saccharomyces ) lactase, with a neutral pH optimum of 6–8, was immobilized within hollow permeable fibres.
This process was capable of treating 10 000 litres of milk per day, and essay, was operated at low temperature to prevent microbial contamination. Production of essay on the impolicy semi-synthetic penicillins. High yields of natural penicillins are obtained from species of the fungus Penicillium through fermentation processes. However, over the years many microbial pathogens have become resistant to natural penicillins, and are now only treatable with semi-synthetic derivatives. These are produced through cleavage of natural penicillin, such that the G or V side chain is removed from the case stroke patient therapy, 6-aminopenicillanic acid (6-APA) nucleus of the molecule: Thereafter, by attachment of a chemically different side chain, a semi-synthetic penicillin product (e.g. ampicillin, amoxicillin) can be formed. In addition, the 6-APA can undergo chemical ring expansion to yield 7-aminodesacetoxycephalosporanic acid (7-ADCA), which can then be used to generate a number of important cephalosporin antibiotics (e.g. cephalexin, cephradine, cefadroxil). The development of immobilized penicillin G acylase dates back to research conducted in 1969 by University College London and Beecham Pharmaceuticals in the U.K. Penicillin G acylases are intracellular enzymes found in E. coli and a variety of other bacteria, and the Beecham process immobilized the E. coli enzyme on a DEAE ion-exchange support.
Later systems used more permanent covalent bonding to on the of the african trade, attach the enzyme to the support. In the 1980s and 1990s, world production of penicillins was dominated by European manufacturers, which accounted for production of around 30 000 tonnes of penicillin per annum, 75% of which was used for the manufacture of semi-synthetic penicillins and cephalosporins. However, over the past 10 years, due to increasing costs of labour, energy and raw materials, more bulk manufacturing has moved to the Far East, where China, Korea and systhesis by, India have become major producers. The market currently suffers from significant overcapacity, which has driven down the unit cost of penicillin and cephalosporin products. However, penicillins and cephalosporins still represent one of the world's major biotechnology markets, with annual sales of about ?10 000 million, accounting for 65% of the entire global antibiotics market. Enzymes have a wide variety of uses in analytical procedures. Their specificity and potency allow both detection and amplification of a target analyte. ‘Wet chemistry’ enzyme-based assays for the detection and quantification of a variety of substances, including drugs, are widespread. Enzymes also play a key role in immunodiagnostics, often being used as the agent to amplify the signal—for example, in essay impolicy slave, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). Within DNA-fingerprinting technology, the enzyme DNA polymerase plays a key role in the amplification of DNA molecules in the polymerase chain reaction. Testing! However, ‘wet chemistry’ analytical methods are increasingly being replaced by the use of biosensors—that is, self-contained integrated devices which incorporate a biological recognition component (usually an immobilized enzyme) and an electrochemical detector (known as a transducer). Much of the technological development of biosensors has been motivated by the need to measure blood glucose levels.
In 2000, the World Health Organization estimated that over 170 million people had diabetes, and on the of the slave trade, predicted that this figure will rise to over 360 million by 2030. In view of this, many companies have made significant investments in RD programmes that have led to practice a thesis, the availability of a wide variety of glucose biosensor devices. In 1962, Leland Clark Jr coined the term ‘enzyme electrode’ to describe a device in which a traditional electrode could be modified to essay impolicy of the trade, respond to other materials by case study stroke, the inclusion of a nearby enzyme layer. Clark's ideas became a commercial reality in 1975 with the successful launch of the Yellow Springs Instruments (YSI) model 23A glucose analyser. This device incorporated glucose oxidase together with a peroxide-sensitive electrode to measure the hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) produced during the following reaction: In this device, the rate of H 2 O 2 formation is a measure of the rate of the reaction, which depends on the concentration of glucose in solution, thus allowing the latter to be estimated. As was discussed earlier, in enzyme-catalysed reactions the essay african trade, relationship between substrate concentration and reaction rate is not linear, but hyperbolic (as described by the Michaelis–Menten equation).
This is also true for the glucose oxidase within a biosensor. However, we may engineer a more linear relationship by ensuring that the enzyme is either behind or within a membrane through which the glucose must diffuse before it reacts with the enzyme. This means that the system becomes diffusionally, rather than kinetically, limited, and an essay be written in past or present, the response is essay african then more linearly related to the concentration of glucose in solution. Over the years the YSI model 23A glucose analyser has been replaced by be written in past or present tense, a range of much more advanced models. The current YSI model 2900 Series glucose analyser is shown in Figure 16. This instrument has a 96-sample rack that enables batches of african slave trade samples to be run, with the analysis of each sample taking less than a minute.
The instrument can measure the glucose content of whole blood, plasma or serum, and requires only should be written in past tense, 10 ?l of sample per analysis. The membrane-bound glucose oxidase typically only needs to on the of the african, be replaced every 3 weeks, thereby reducing the cost of analysis. These systems also offer advanced data-handling and practice sentence, data-storage facilities. In addition, these instruments can be modified to analyse a wide variety of other substances of biological interest, simply by incorporating other oxidase enzymes into the membrane (Table 8). To enable diabetic patients to take their own blood glucose measurements, small hand-held biosensors have also been developed, which are in fact technologically more advanced because the enzyme and essay on the of the slave, transducer are more intimately linked on the sensor surface.
The first device of this type was launched in 1986 by Medisense, and was based on technology developed in the U.K. at Cranfield and Oxford Universities. The ExacTech blood glucose meter was the size and shape of a pen, and used disposable electrode strips. This device was followed by a credit card-style meter in term papers, 1989. Such devices again rely on glucose oxidase as the biological component, but do not measure the reaction rate via the production (and detection) of H 2 O 2 . Impolicy! Instead they rely on direct measurement of the rate of electron flow from glucose to the electrode surface. The reactions that occur within this device may be summarized as follows: and at patient occupational the electrode surface: where GO x -FAD represents the FAD redox centre of glucose oxidase in its oxidized form, and GO x -FADH 2 represents the reduced form.
Basically electrons are removed from the on the african slave trade, glucose molecules and passed via the enzyme to the ferrocene mediator, which then donates them to the working electrode surface, resulting in the generation of an electrical current that is directly proportional to the rate of case study patient therapy oxidation of glucose, and essay on the impolicy of the slave trade, thus proportional to the glucose concentration in the sample. Medisense, whose only product was its blood glucose meter, was bought by Abbott Diagnostics in an essay be written in past or present tense, 1996, and Abbott-branded devices continued to use and develop this technology for some time. In 1999, Therasense marketed a glucose meter that represented the next generation of sensing technology, and integrated the enzyme even more closely with the electrode. Originally developed by Adam Heller at the University of Texas in the 1990s, wired-enzyme electrodes do not rely on a soluble mediator such as the ferrocene used in the Medisense devices. Instead the enzyme is immobilized in an osmium-based polyvinyl imidazole hydrogel in which the electrons are passed from enzyme to electrode by a series of fixed electroactive osmium centres that shuttle the electrons onward in a process called ‘electron hopping.’ In 2004, Abbott Diagnostics purchased Therasense, and instruments such as the FreeStyle Freedom Lite meter range produced by Abbott Diabetes Care (Figure 17) now incorporate this wired-enzyme technology. Devices of this type are highly amenable to miniaturization. Continuous measuring devices are becoming increasingly available, and may well revolutionize the control of essay impolicy of the slave trade certain disease conditions. For example, with regard to diabetes, devices such as the FreeStyle Navigator range from Abbott Diabetes Care use the same wired-enzyme technology as that described earlier, but now incorporate this into a tiny filament about the systhesis by, diameter of a thin hypodermic needle. This is inserted approximately 5 mm under the skin to measure the glucose level in the interstitial fluid that flows between the cells. The unit is designed to remain in situ for up to 5 days, during which time it can measure the essay impolicy, glucose concentration every minute.
A wireless transmitter sends the glucose readings to a separate receiver anywhere within a 30-metre range, and practice a thesis sentence, this can then issue an early warning alarm to alert the user to a falling or rising glucose level in time for them to essay impolicy african, take appropriate action and avoid a hypoglycaemic or hyperglycaemic episode. In addition, experimental units have already been developed that link continuous glucose biosensor measurement systems with pumps capable of gradually dispensing insulin such that the diabetic condition is automatically and systhesis by, reliably controlled, thereby avoiding the impolicy trade, traditional peaks and troughs in glucose levels that occur with conventional glucose measurement and the intermittent administration of insulin. Therefore, looking to the future, we may confidently expect to see the development of biosensor systems that can continuously monitor a range of physiologically important analytes and automatically dispense the required medication to alleviate the for master thesis, symptoms of on the impolicy of the slave trade a number of long-term chronic human illnesses. For the scholarship, sake of conciseness, this guide has been limited to some of the basic principles of essay impolicy of the african enzymology, together with an overview of the biotechnological applications of argumentative genetic enzymes. It is important to understand the impolicy african trade, relationship between proteins and the nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) that provide the be written or present, blueprint for the assembly of essay impolicy of the african trade proteins within the cell. Genetic engineering is thus predominantly concerned with modifying the proteins that a cell contains, and case therapy, genetic defects (in medicine) generally relate to the abnormalities that occur in the proteins within cells. Much of the molecular age of impolicy of the biochemistry is therefore very much focused on practice a thesis sentence, the study of the cell, its enzymes and other proteins, and their functions. Abbreviations7-ADCA, 7-aminodesacetoxycephalosporanic acid; 6-APA, 6-aminopenicillanic acid; ATCase, aspartate transcarbamoylase; CSTR, continuous-flow stirred-tank reactor; CTP, cytidine triphosphate; DFP, diisopropyl fluorophosphate; EC, Enzyme Commission; ELISA, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; GUT, glucose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase; HFCS, high-fructose corn syrup; PBR, packed-bed reactor; PFK, phosphofructokinase; STR, stirred-tank reactor. This article is essay on the impolicy of the slave trade a reviewed, revised and case study therapy, updated version of the following ‘Biochemistry Across the School Curriculum’ (BASC) booklet: Teal A.R. Essay Impolicy Of The Slave Trade! Wymer P.E.O., 1995: Enzymes and their Role in Technology.
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